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Impact of Floods and Their Frequency on Content and Distribution of Risk Elements in Alluvial Soils

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the pollution levels of risk elements in flooded and non-flooded alluvial soils as a function of inundation frequency and river distance, depth of soil horizon, and pollution origin. Totally, 43 soil profiles of flooded and non-flooded soils were sampled in two layers (topsoil and subsoil). The total contents of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were measured and grouped according to the assumed geogenic or anthropogenic origin. Flooded soils were classified according to inundation stage/river distance. Concerning the depth gradient, it can be concluded that the content of anthropogenic risk elements decreased with the depth, while geogenic risk elements revealed no trend. The distance from the river had no influence on the distribution of anthropogenic risk elements in soil. On the contrary, geogenic risk elements showed increasing concentrations with increasing distance. These results indicate that frequency of floods has no influence on the risk elements distribution in soil. The process of sedimentation seems to be the main factor influencing the level of pollution, it differs between groups of anthropogenic and geogenic risk elements. The result of this countrywide study shows higher levels of soil contamination in flooded areas even without significant point sources of pollution, than in non-flooded areas in standard agricultural conditions.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the project of MV No. VG20102014026 and by the European Social Fund in the Czech Republic (OP Education for Competitiveness), and the state budget of the Czech Republic.

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Correspondence to Milan Sáňka.

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Bednářová, Z., Komprdová, K., Kalábová, T. et al. Impact of Floods and Their Frequency on Content and Distribution of Risk Elements in Alluvial Soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 226, 15 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-2253-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-2253-x

Keywords

  • Risk element
  • Floodplain
  • Soil contamination
  • Agricultural soils