Phytoremediation of Endosulfan Sulfate-Contaminated Soil by Single and Mixed Plant Cultivations
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The extent of endosulfan sulfate removal from soils by different planting pattern with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna sinensis), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) either cultivated alone or together was investigated in pot experiments. Endosulfan sulfate was removed to the greatest extent in the treatment in which sweet corn was grown alone; only 11.3 and 27.2 % of the initial endosulfan sulfate remained in rhizospheric and bulk soil, respectively, of sweet corn grown alone at day 60. Endosulfan sulfate was also removed from soil to a great extent in treatments where cucumber or cowpea was grown alone; only 30.3 and 38.8 % of endosulfan sulfate remained in their respective rhizospheric soil after 45 days. However, cucumber did not tolerate the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate well and died around 50–55 days when it was cultivated either alone or together with another plant. Cultivation of sweet corn and cowpea together was less effective in removing endosulfan sulfate from soil; about 41.7 and 52.3 % of endosulfan sulfate remained in their respective rhizospheric soils after 60 days. The results showed that single cultivation of the plants was the most efficient way to remediate endosulfan sulfate-contaminated soil in this study. Endosulfan sulfate was detected in both the root and shoot of plants but given the low levels found, bioaccumulation was judged to be a relatively minor factor in endosulfan sulfate removal from soil.
KeywordsCowpea Cucumber Endosulfan sulfate Mixed plant cultivation Phytoremediation Sweet corn
The authors acknowledge financial support from the Thailand Research Fund, Office of the Higher Education Commission and Mahasarakham University (Grant No. MRG5480030).
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