The electrochemical degradation of the Reactive Red 141 azo dye was done using a one-compartment filter-press flow cell with a boron-doped diamond anode. The response surface methodology (with a central composite design) was used to investigate the effect of current density (10–50 mA cm−2), pH (3–11), NaCl concentration ([NaCl]) (0–2.34 g L–1), and temperature (15–55 °C) on the system’s performance. The charge required for 90 % decolorization (Q 90), the fraction of chemical oxygen demand removal after 6 min of electrolysis (COD6), and the fraction of total organic carbon removal after 90 min of electrolysis (TOC90) were used to model the obtained results. The lowest values of Q 90 were attained at pH <4 in the presence of higher values of [NaCl] (>1.5 g L−1), due to the electrogeneration of active chlorine, present mainly as HClO. The value of COD6 was not affected by the solution pH, but increased with [NaCl] up to 1.5 g L−1. Higher temperatures (>40 °C) led to a decrease in COD6, as a consequence of side reactions. Higher values of TOC90, which can be reached only with strong oxidants (such as ·OH and Cl·), were efficiently attained at low [NaCl] values (<0.7 g L−1) in acidic solutions that inhibit the formation of ClO3 − and ClO4 −. Finally, the obtained results allow inferring that most probably the mineralization of the dye starts with an attack on the chromophore group, followed by the degradation of intermediate species.
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This work was supported by the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla La Mancha, Spain (project PEII11-0097-2026). The Brazilian agencies CNPq and CAPES (scholarship for J. M. Aquino) are gratefully acknowledged. Dystar is also acknowledged for supplying the dye sample.
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Aquino, J.M., Rocha-Filho, R.C., Rodrigo, M.A. et al. Electrochemical Degradation of the Reactive Red 141 Dye Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Anode. Water Air Soil Pollut 224, 1397 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1397-9
- Response surface methodology
- Conductive-diamond anode
- Electrochemical oxidation
- Dye mineralization
- Dye electrooxidation
- Chloride mediated oxidation