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Removal of Anionic Pollutants from Waters and Wastewaters and Materials Perspective for Their Selective Sorption

Abstract

The presence of some anionic species, such as nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, and cyanide, in water supplies may represent a serious environmental problem. In this work, the main sources and harmful effects of their bioaccumulation on living organisms are reviewed, as well as the most adopted technologies for their uptake. The major advantages and disadvantages of each methodology are also listed. In general, ion-exchange has been elucidated as the most suitable removal process. In view of that the most promising materials used to remove anionic pollutants from aqueous solutions are highlighted in this review. In particular, the major efforts towards the development of low-cost and easily available effective sorbents for water decontamination are covered. For instance, natural waste solid materials and derivatives have emerged as promising low-cost exchangers for selective anions uptake. Besides, a number of structural modifications including the introduction of more suitable surface functional groups or compensation species into the sorbent matrix have been investigated in order to enhance sorbents selectivity and capacity for anionic pollutants. The influence of speciation and removal conditions is also focused.

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Abbreviations

AC:

Activated carbon

C :

Concentration in solution

C 0 :

Initial concentration in solution

DWD:

European Drinking Water Directive

Fe(III)LECCA:

Fe(III)-loaded ligand exchange cotton cellulose adsorbent

GRM:

Granular red mud

LDHs:

Layered double hydroxides

MMO:

Mixed metal oxide

t :

Time

T :

Temperature

TAC:

Total anodic compartment

WHO:

World Health Organization

X :

Dimensionless concentration in solution

Y :

Dimensionless concentration in the solid phase

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Acknowledgments

Patrícia F. Lito wishes to thank grant provided by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/BPD/63214/2009; Portugal). José P.S. Aniceto would like to acknowledge the funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement No. CP-IP 228589-2 AFORE. Authors thank Pest-C/CTM/LA0011/2011 for CICECO funding. The authors thank Simão P. Cardoso for figures support.

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Lito, P.F., Aniceto, J.P.S. & Silva, C.M. Removal of Anionic Pollutants from Waters and Wastewaters and Materials Perspective for Their Selective Sorption. Water Air Soil Pollut 223, 6133–6155 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1346-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1346-7

Keywords

  • Anion
  • Ion-exchange
  • Pollutants
  • Sorbent
  • Water treatment