Acute Toxicity of Seven Selected Pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine, Dieldrin, Diuron, Pirimiphos-Methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon) to the Marine Fish (Turbot, Psetta maxima)

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Abstract

The present study evaluated the short-term toxicity of seven selected pesticides: four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, diazinon and pirimiphos-methyl) and three herbicides (diuron, alachlor and atrazine). With this aim, a standard toxicity test with the highly sensitive early life stages (ELS) of a marine fish was used. The turbot, Psetta maxima, is abundant in shallow estuarine and costal habitats and is currently the most commonly cultivated fish species in Galicia, NW Spain. According to the turbot ELS test results, chlorpyrifos was the most toxic pesticide tested for both embryos and larvae and was followed in order of decreasing toxicity by dieldrin, pirimiphos-methyl, diazinon, alachlor, atrazine and diuron. Larvae were more sensitive than embryos to the seven pesticides. The median lethal concentrations of the selected pesticides during a 48- and a 96-h exposure for turbot embryos and larvae were, respectively (in micrograms per litre): chlorpyrifos, 116.6 and 94.65; dieldrin, 146 and 97; pirimiphos-methyl, 560 and 452; diazinon, 1,837 and 1,230; alachlor, 2,177 and 2,233; diuron, 10,076 and 7,826; and atrazine, 11,873 and 9,957. According to their acute toxicity, the insecticides were more toxic than the herbicides. Furthermore, all insecticides and herbicides appear to be teratogenic to turbot ELS.

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Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of all the workers and personnel at the ECIMAT and Laboratory of Marine Ecology, especially those workers who willingly participated in the hatchery, Damián Costas and Arantxa Martínez. The authors would like to thank David Chavarrias (Insuiña S.L., Mougás, Galicia, Spain). This study was financially supported by MAE-PCI (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Spain), Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Technology in Tunisia and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MCINN) through the research project Environmental Quality Criteria for Marine Ecosystems (ENVICRISYS).

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Correspondence to Lazhar Mhadhbi.

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An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-2980-2.

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Mhadhbi, L., Beiras, R. Acute Toxicity of Seven Selected Pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine, Dieldrin, Diuron, Pirimiphos-Methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon) to the Marine Fish (Turbot, Psetta maxima). Water Air Soil Pollut 223, 5917–5930 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1328-9

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Keywords

  • Turbot
  • Early life stage
  • Acute toxicity
  • Sublethal effects
  • Pesticides