Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 8, pp 5283–5288 | Cite as

Tracking of Chromium in Plasma co-Melting of Fly Ashes and Sludges

Article

Abstract

Leachable chromium in the incineration fly ash and wastewater sludge has been thermally stabilized by plasma melting at the temperature of 1,773 K. To better understand how chromium is stabilized with the high-temperature treatment, chemical structure of the slags sampled at temperature zones of 1,100–1,700 K has been studied by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The component-fitted X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra of chromium indicate that the main chromium compounds in the sludge and fly ash are Cr(OH)3, Cr2O3, and CrCl3. A small amount of toxic CrO3 is also observed in the fly ash. In the plasma melting chamber under the reducing environment, the high-oxidation state chromium is not found. The slags in the plasma melting chamber have much less leachable chromium, which is due to chemical interactions between chromium and SiO2 in the slags. The existence of the interconnected Cr-O-Si species is observed by refined extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. In the Cr2O3 phase of the slags, their bond distances, and coordination numbers for the first (Cr-O) and second (Cr-(O)-Cr) shells have insignificant perturbation when experienced with different melting temperatures between 1,300 and 1,700 K. It seems that Cr2O3 and chromium encapsulated in the silicate matrix of the slags have relatively much lower leachability. With this concept, to obtain a low chromium leachability slag from the plasma melting process, the residence time of the melting chamber may be decreased, and the slag discharge temperatures may be increased to 1,300 K. This work also exemplifies utilization of molecule-scale data obtained from synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy to reveal how chromium is thermally stabilized in a commercial scale plasma melting process.

Keywords

Chromium Plasma melting Thermal stabilization XANES EXAFS 

References

  1. Abielaala, L., Aouad, H., Mesnaoui, M., Musso, J. A., et al. (2011). Characterization and vitrification of fly ashes from incineration of waste of infectious risk cares (WIRC). Sustainable Environment Research, 21, 195–201.Google Scholar
  2. Chiu, Y. M., Huang, C. H., Chang, F. C., Kang, H. Y., Wang, H. P., et al. (2011). Recovery of copper from a wastewater for preparation of Cu@C nanoparticles. Sustainable Environment Research, 21, 279–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chou, J.-D., Wey, M.-Y., Chang, S.-H., et al. (2009). Evaluation of the distribution patterns of Pb, Cu and Cd from MSWI fly ash during thermal treatment by sequential extraction procedure. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 1000–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, M., Kargacin, B., Klein, C., Costa, M., et al. (1993). Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 23, 255–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Costa, M. (2003). Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 188, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costa, M., & Klein, C. B. (2006). Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 36, 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fedje, K. K., Ekberg, C., Skarnemark, G., Steenari, B.-M., et al. (2010). Removal of hazardous metals from MSW fly ash—an evaluation of ash leaching methods. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173, 310–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gomez, E., Amutha Rani, D., Cheeseman, C. R., Deegan, D., Wisec, M., Boccaccini, A. R., et al. (2009). Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161, 614–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koningsberger, D. C., & Prins, R. (1998). X-ray absorption principles, applications, techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS and XANES. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Kourti, I., Amutha Rani, D., Bustos, A. G., Deegan, D., Boccaccini, A. R., Cheeseman, C. R., et al. (2011). Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 196, 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ku, C. C., Wang, H. P., Lee, P. H., Hsiao, M. C., Huang, H. L., Wang, H. C., et al. (2003). Speciation of chromium in an electroplating sludge during thermal stabilization. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 71, 860–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuo, Y. M., Lin, T. C., Tsai, P. J., et al. (2004). Metal behavior during vitrification of incinerator ash in a coke bed furnace. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B109, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuo, Y. M., Tseng, H. J., Chang, J. E., Wang, J. W., Wang, C. T., Chen, H. T., et al. (2008). An alternative approach for reusing slags from a plasma vitrification process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156, 442–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuo, Y. M., Wang, C. T., Tsai, C. H., Wang, L. C., et al. (2009). Chemical and physical properties of plasma slags containing various amorphous volume fractions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 469–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lampris, C., Stegemann, J. A., Pellizon-Birelli, M., Fowler, G. D., Cheeseman, C. R., et al. (2011). Metal leaching from monolithic stabilized/solidified air pollution control residues. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 1115–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin, K. L., & Chang, C. T. (2006). Leaching characteristics of slag from the melting treatment of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B135, 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin, K.-S., & Wang, H. P. (2000a). Supercritical water oxidation of 2-chlorophenol catalyzed by Cu2+ cations and copper oxide clusters. Environment Science and Technology, 34, 4849–4854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin, K.-S., & Wang, H. P. (2000b). Byproduct shape selectivity in supercritical water oxidation of 2-chlorophenol effected by CuO/ZSM-5. Langmuir, 16, 2627–2631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lin, K.-S., & Wang, H. P. (2001). Catalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol in confined channels of ZSM-48. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, 105, 4956–4960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu, Y., Zheng, L., Li, X., Xie, S., et al. (2009). SEM/EDS and XRD characterization of raw and washed MSWI fly ash sintered at different temperatures. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moustakas, K., Xydis, G., Malamis, S., Haralambous, K.-J., Loizidou, M., et al. (2008). Analysis of results from the operation of a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification unit for optimizing its performance. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151, 473–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Park, Y. J., & Heo, J. (2002). Vitrification of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B91, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rehr, J. J., Zabinsky, S. I., Ankudinov, A., & Albers, R. C. (1995). Atomic-XAFS and XANES. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 208&209, 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Taiwan EPA. (2009) Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), NIEA R201.14C.Google Scholar
  25. Teo, B. K. (1986). EXAFS: basic principles and data analysis. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wei, Y.-L., Hsu, L.-H., Wang, H. P., Chen, K.-W., et al. (2007). XAS study of chromium recoverable from plating sludge. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 156–158, 204–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wise, J. P., Sr., Wise, S. S., Little, J. E., et al. (2002). The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium in human lung cells. Mutation Research, 517, 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yang, Y., Xiao, Y., Wilson, N., Voncken, J. H. L., et al. (2009). Thermal behaviour of ESP ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 567–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang, S.-F., Wang, T.-M., Lee, W.-C., Sun, K.-S., Tzeng, C.-C., et al. (2010). Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182, 191–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  2. 2.Sustainable Environment Research CenterNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations