Sediment Pollution, Transport, and Abatement Measures in the City Canals of Delft, the Netherlands
This paper presents an overview of a long-term study on sediment pollution in the city canals of Delft, the Netherlands. This pollution was most evident for the inner city canal system, with copper, lead, zinc, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as main pollutants. Sediments of the outer city canals generally had a much better quality. Pollution levels, mutual correlations, and spatial variations were investigated for the various sediment parameters. Also, heavy metal binding forms onto Delft sediments were assessed with the help of sequential extraction techniques; results were found to be in line with expected preferential physicochemical binding processes. Input of sediments into the Delft inner city canals was shown to be largely driven by busy shipping traffic on the main canal surrounding the inner city. Mass balances for the inner city were used to quantify internal and external pollution sources; 65–85 % of the heavy metal pollution can be attributed to sources outside the Delft area. As shown by factor and cluster analyses, it is highly probable that these external sources derive from the river Rhine. A gradual improvement of the sediment quality has set in; it is expected that, due to further pollution abatement measures, this improvement will continue over the years to come. With respect to the ship-induced sediment input into the inner city canals, it was estimated that a reduction of ship velocities to <1.5 m/s will bring down the sediment input mentioned above to about 85 %.
KeywordsFactor analysis Heavy metals Mass balance PAHs Sequential extraction Shipping traffic
The research was carried out during the period 1991–2006. Thanks are due to W.M.E. Drossaert from “De Straat Milieuadviseurs”, as coordinator of the sediment quality assessment at the 182 stations, and to N. van Mulken of the organization mentioned above, for composing various Delft sediment maps. A.E. Mynett, A. Verwey, and J.C. Winterwerp of Deltares (formerly: WL|Delft Hydraulics) were very helpful in the modeling of the hydrodynamics of shipping movements. K. Irvine critically read the manuscript. The various researches described in this paper were mostly carried out in the framework of MSc researches at UNESCO-IHE and were supervised by M. Bijlsma and the author, with invaluable assistance of the UNESCO-IHE laboratory staff: G.F. Kruis (head), C.G.J. Bik (deceased), D. van Galen, L. Robbemont, and F. Wiegman. Thanks are due to the following international batch of M.Sc. students: Luis S. Galione (Uruguay), Dessalegn Bezabih Kassie (Ethiopia), Lilian C. Okonkwo (Nigeria), William J. Ntow (Ghana), Andries S. Manamela (South Africa), Qu Wenchuan, Xia Jianling, Zhang Min and Yang Xuedong (People’s Republic of China), and Alfatih Osman (Sudan). This research was financially supported by the municipality of Delft and was guided by I.A. Clarisse, B. Janssen, and M. Iping of the project “Delft-Kennisstad” (“Delft-City of Knowledge”).
- Anderberg, M. R. (1973). Cluster analysis for applications. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
- Anonymous (1997). Development programme for treatment processes for contaminated sediments. POSW Stage II (1992–1996). Lelystad: RIZA Report 97.051.Google Scholar
- Bloesch, J. (1995). Mechanisms, measurements and importance of sediment resuspension in lakes. Marine and Freshwater Research, 46, 295–304.Google Scholar
- Boot, J. C. G., & Cox, E. B. (1974). Statistical analysis for managerial decisions. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Calmano, U., Roeters, P., Vellinga, T. (eds.) (1997). Selected proceedings of the International Conference on contaminated sediments, Rotterdam, Sept. 1997. Water Science and Technology (special issue), 37(6–7), 1–453.Google Scholar
- Cappendijk-de Bok, A. M., & Vermeulen, I. A. H. M. (1996). Modelbeschrijving-en-gebruikershandleiding-van-PLONS: Positionering-en-Lengteverdeling-van-Openingen-in-een-Natte-Strookverdediging (model description and instruction of PLONS model: Positioning and length division of openings in a wet strip barrier) (unpublished Report in Dutch). http://www.scribd.com/doc/44868002. Accessed 12 February 2000.
- Cherry, K. T. (1982). Plating waste treatment. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science.Google Scholar
- De Waal-Malefijt, A. J. W. (1982). Cadmium, chroom, koper, lood, nikkel en zink in huishoudelijk afvalwater en in af te voeren neerslag (Cadmium, chromium, nickel and zinc in domestic wastewater and in rainwater drainage) (in Dutch). H 2 O, 15, 357–361.Google Scholar
- Dessalegn, B. K. (1996). The effect of the Rijn-Schie canal on the sediment pollution of the Delft canals. Delft: IHE MSc thesis EE 236.Google Scholar
- Donze, M. (Ed.). (1990). Shaping the environment: Aquatic pollution and dredging in the European community. Den Haag: Delwel.Google Scholar
- Duke, L. D., Buffleben, M., & Bauersachs, L. A. (1998). Pollutants in storm water runoff from metal plating facilities, Los Angeles, California. Water Management, 18, 25–38.Google Scholar
- Eaton, A. D., Clesceri, L. S., & Greenberg, A. E. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: APHA.Google Scholar
- Fiedler, H. (Ed.). (2003). The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 3, part O: Persistent organics. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Förstner, U., & Wittmann, G. T. W. (1983). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Galione, L. S. (1994). Heavy metal pollution in Delft inner city canal sediments: A mass balance approach. Delft: IHE MSc thesis EE 163.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, A. E., Clesceri, L. S., & Eaton, A. D. (1992). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington: APHA.Google Scholar
- Gruden, D. (Ed.). (2003). The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 3, part T: Traffic and environment. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Higginns, T. E. (1995). Pollution prevention handbook. Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, E., & Van Sluis, J. W. (1993). Sewers and the quality of canals and ditches in Amsterdam: A mass balance approach. Water Science and Technology, 27(5–6), 61–67.Google Scholar
- Kelderman, P. (2002). Pollution sources and abatement measures for dredged sediments in the city of Delft (The Netherlands). European Water Management online, 2002–4, 1–12. www.ewaonline.de/journal/2002_04.pdf; Accessed 7 December 2011.
- Kelderman, P., Yang, X., Qu, W., & Drossaert, W. M. E. (2003). River Rhine as a source of micropollutants in the canal sediments of the city of Delft (The Netherlands). Water Science and Technology, 48(10), 143–150.Google Scholar
- Kelderman, P., Xuedong, Y., Drossaert, W. M. E. (2005). Sediment pollution with respect to heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the city canals of Delft (The Netherlands)—assessment of a data base of 188 sediment stations. European Water Management Online, 2004–5, 1–16 www.ewaonline.de/journal/2005_05.pdf. Accessed 7 December 2011.
- Knepper, T. P. C. (Ed.). (2006). The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 5, part L: The Rhine. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Malinowski, E. R., & Howery, D. G. (1980). Factor analysis in chemistry. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Mohaupt, V., Sieber, U., Van den Roovaart, J., Verstappen, C. G., Langenfeld, F., & Braun, M. (2001). Diffuse sources of heavy metals in the Rhine basin. Water Science and Technology, 44(7), 41–49.Google Scholar
- Montgomery, D. C., & Runger, G. C. (2003). Applied statistics and probability for engineers. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nemerow, N. L. (1978). Industrial water pollution. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- NRCC (1983). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment: Formation, sources, fate and effects on aquatic biota. Ottawa: NRCC No. 18981.Google Scholar
- Nriagu, J. O. (Ed.). (1978). The biogeochemistry of lead in the environment. Part a: Ecological cycles. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical.Google Scholar
- Nriagu, J. O. (Ed.). (1979). Copper in the environment. Part I, ecological cycling. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Nriagu, J. O. (Ed.). (1980). Zinc in the environment. Part I: Ecological cycling. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Ntow, W. J. (1998). Modelling ship-induced sediment transport in the Delft canal system. Delft: IHE MSc thesis DEW 023.Google Scholar
- Okonkwo, L. C. (1997). Assessment of micropollutant contamination in the sediment of Delft inner city canals. Delft: IHE MSc thesis DEW 009.Google Scholar
- Osman, A. A. (2006). Effect of redox potential on heavy metal binding forms in polluted Delft canal sediments. Delft: UNESCO-IHE MSc thesis ES 06.13.Google Scholar
- Perin, G., Fabris, R., Manente, S., Rebello Wagener, A., Hamacher, C., & Scotto, S. (1997). A 5-year study on the heavy metal pollution of Guanabara Bay sediments (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and evaluation of the metal bioavailability by means of geochemical speciation. Water Research, 31(12), 3017–3028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Qu, W. (1999). Temporal and source-related trends in the pollution of Delft inner city canal sediments. Delft: IHE MSc thesis DEW 104.Google Scholar
- Salomons, W., Förstner, U., & Mader, P. (1995). Heavy metals. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Spiro, G. T., & Stigliani, W. M. (2003). Chemistry of the environment. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Stumm, W., & Morgan, J. J. (1996). Aquatic chemistry: An introduction emphasizing chemical equilibria in natural water (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Tack, F. G. M., Vossius, H. A. H., & Verloo, M. G. (1996). Single extractions versus sequential extraction for the estimation of heavy metal fractions in reduced and oxidised dredged sediments. International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, 1, 61–66.Google Scholar
- Teixeira, E. C., Ortiz, L. S., Alves, M. F. C. C., & Sanchez, J. C. D. (2001). Distribution of selected heavy metals in fluvial sediments of the coal mining region of Baixo Jacuí, RS, Brazil. Environmental Geology, 41(1–2), 145–151.Google Scholar
- Van den Hoop, M. A. G. T. (1995). Literatuurstudie naar de achtergrondgehalten van zware metalen en arseen in bodem, sediment, oppervlaktewater en grondwater. (Literature study on the background contents of heavy metals and arsenic in soil, sediment, surface and ground water) (in Dutch). RIVM report 719101019 www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/719101019.pdf. Accessed 7 December 2011.
- Van Leeuwen, C. J., & Hermens, J. L. M. (1995). Risk assessment of chemicals: An introduction. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Wang, X. S. (2008). Correlations between heavy metals and organic carbon extracted by dry oxidation procedure in urban roadside soils. Environmental Geology, 54, 269–273.Google Scholar
- Waterbase (2011). http://live.waterbase.nl. Accessed 20 October 2011.
- Weyhenmeyer, G. A., Meili, M., & Pierson, D. C. (1995). A simple method to quantify sources of settling particles in lakes: Resuspension versus new sedimentation of material of planktonic production. Marine and Freshwater Research, 46, 223–231.Google Scholar
- Xia, J. (1993). Combined sewer overflows (CSO) impacts on micro-pollutants in canal sediment of Delft. Delft: IHE MSc thesis EE 117.Google Scholar
- Yang, X. (2001). Statistical techniques for finding sources of micropollutants in the Delft canal sediments. Delft: IHE MSc thesis DEW 176.Google Scholar
- Yu, K. C., Chang, C. Y., Tsai, L. J., & Ho, S. T. (2000). Multivariate analysis on heavy metal binding fractions of river sediments in southern Taiwan. Water Science and Technology, 42(7–8), 193–199.Google Scholar