Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 7, pp 4047–4064 | Cite as

Enhanced Phenol and Chlorinated Phenols Removal by Combining Ozonation and Biodegradation

  • Elvia Inés García-Peña
  • Paola Zarate-Segura
  • Pamela Guerra-Blanco
  • Tatyana Poznyak
  • Isaac Chairez


Water treatment for wastewater containing phenols and their chlorinated variations has attracted important research efforts. Phenol’s high toxicity makes them a good model to test possible water treatment based on biological and/or chemical methods. High concentrations of phenols may be treated by pure biological schemes. However, chlorinated phenols are very toxic for many microorganisms. Therefore, mixed treatment trains can be proposed to solve the treatment of this class of organics. In this study, the ozonation was used as pretreatment to decompose chlorinated phenols. Besides, this study describes how the microbial consortiums were adapted to handle ozonation by-products. The biodegradation of different phenol concentrations from 50 to 1,500 mg/L was evaluated using preadapted microbial consortia in batch and in a trickling packed-bed reactor (TPBR). Under batch conditions, phenol was efficiently removed up to 500 mg/L. For every phenol concentration evaluated, higher degradation rates were obtained in TPBR. The chlorophenols were found to be poorly degraded by the pure biological treatment, 4-CPh was not degraded during the biological process and 2,4-DCPh was only 40 % degraded after 250 h of culture. By combining the chemical (as pretreatment) and the biological processes, 85 % of 4-CPh was removed, while the degradation of the 2,4-DCPh was enhanced from 40 to 87 %. The predominant bacteria found in the preadapted cultures were Xanthomonas sp., Ancylobacter sp., and Rhodopseudomonas. Total treatment period was reduced from several weeks to some days. This information reflects the benefits offered by the mixed water treatment train proposed in this paper.


Ozonation Biodegradation Combined treatment Phenol Chlorophenols elimination 


  1. Abuhamed, T., Bayraktar, E., Mehmetoglu, T., & Mehmetoglu, U. (2004). Kinetics model for the growth of Pseudomonas putida F1 during benzene, toluene and phenol biodegradation. Process Biochemistry, 39, 983–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adav, S. S., Chen, M. Y., Lee, D. J., & Ren, N. Q. (2007). Degradation phenol by Acinetobacter strain isolated from aerobic granules. Chemosphere, 67, 1566–1572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aparicio, M. A., Eiroa, M., Kennes, C., & Veiga, M. C. (2007). Combined post-ozonation and biological treatment of recalcitrant wastewater from a resin-producing factory. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 143, 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bajaj, M., Gallert, C., & Winter, J. (2009). Phenol degradation kinetics of an aerobic mixed culture. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 46, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee, A., & Ghosha, A. K. (2010). Isolation and characterization of hyper phenol tolerant Bacillus sp from oil refinery and exploration sites. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173, 783–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beltrán, F. J., Encinar, J. M., & González, J. F. (1997). Industrial wastewater advanced oxidation. Ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide or UV radiation. Water Research, 31, 2415–2428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beltran-Heredia, J., Torregrosa, J., Dominguez, J. R., & Garcia, J. (2000). Aerobic biological treatment of black table olive washing wastewaters: effect of an ozonation stage. Process Biochemistry, 35, 1183–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benitez, F. J., Real, F. J., Acero, J. L., Garcia, J., & Sanchez, M. (2003). Kinetics of the ozonation and aerobic biodegradation of wine vinasses in discontinuous and continuous processes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B101, 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaichanawong, J., Yamamoto, T., & Ohmori, T. (2010). Enhancement effect of carbon adsorbent on ozonation of aqueous phenol. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 175, 673–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, K. C., Lin, Y. H., Chen, W. H., & Liu, Y. C. (2002). Degradation of phenol by PAA-immobilized Candida tropicalis. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 31, 490–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Contreras, S., Rodriguez, M., Al Momani, F., Sans, C., & Esplugas, S. (2003). Contribution of the ozonation pre-treatment to the biodegradation of aqueous solutions of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Water Research, 37, 3164–3317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derudi, M., Venturini, G., Lombardi, G., Nano, G., & Rota, R. (2007). Biodegradation combined with ozone for the remediation of contaminated soils. European Journal of Soil Biology, 43, 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dong, Y., Yang, H., He, K., Wu, X., & Zhang, A. (2008). Catalytic activity and stability of Y zeolite for phenol degradation in the presence of ozone. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 82, 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edalatmanesh, M., Mehrvar, M., & Dhib, R. (2008). Optimization of phenol degradation in a combined photochemical–biological wastewater treatment system. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 86, 1243–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Naas, M. H., Al-Zuhair, S., & Makhlouf, S. (2010). Batch degradation of phenol in a spouted bed bioreactor system. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 16, 267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Essam, T., Amin, M. A., Tayeb, O. E., Mattiasson, B., & Guieysse, B. (2010). Kinetics and metabolic versatility of highly tolerant phenol degrading Alcaligenes strain TW1. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173, 783–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garza, G. (1985). Tratamiento de efluentes de la industria de la curtiduría. In Reunión conjunta en León Guanajuato (pp. 165–207). Mexico: Sociedad Mexicana de Aguas A.C.Google Scholar
  18. Godjevargova, T., Ivanova, D., Aleksieva, Z., & Dimova, N. (2003). Biodegradation of toxic organic components from industrial phenol producing wastewater by free and immobilized Trichospora cutaneum R 57. Process Biochemistry, 38, 915–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Godjevargova, T., Ivanova, D., Aleksieva, Z., & Dimova, N. (2006). Biodegradation of phenol by immobilized Trichosporon cutaneum R 57 on modified polymer membranes. Process Biochemistry, 41, 2342–2346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grau, P. (1991). Textile industry wastewater’s treatment. Water Science and Technology, 24, 97–103.Google Scholar
  21. Harrison, F. H., & Harwood, C. S. (2005). The pimFABCDE operon from Rhodopseudomonas palustris mediates dicarboxylic acid degradation and participates in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Microbiology, 151, 727–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Higgins, D. G., Thompson, J. D., & Gibson, T. J. (1996). Using CLUSTAL for multiple sequence alignments. Methods in Enzymology, 266, 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hong, P. K. A., & Zeng, Y. (2002). Degradation of pentachlorophenol by ozonation and biodegradability of intermediates. Water Research, 36, 4243–4254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jiang, Y., Wen, J., Caiyin, Q., Lin, L., & Hu, Z. (2006). Mutant AFM 2 of Alcaligenes feacalis for phenol biodegradation using He–Ne laser irradiation. Chemosphere, 65, 1236–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kamal, V. S., & Wyndham, R. C. (1990). Anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WS17. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 3871–3873.Google Scholar
  26. Kargi, F., & Eker, S. (2005). Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol and toxicity from synthetic wastewater in a rotating perforated tube biofilm reactor. Process Biochemistry, 40, 2105–2111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kasikara, N., & Telefoncu, A. (2005). Biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on activated pumice particles. Process Biochemistry, 40, 1807–1814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khokhawala, I. M., & Gogate, P. R. (2010). Degradation of phenol using a combination of ultrasonic and UV irradiations at pilot scale operation. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17, 833–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar, A., Kumar, S., & Kumar, S. (2005). Biodegradation kinetics of phenol and catechol using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 22, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Manickam, N., Misra, R., & Mayilraj, S. (2007). A novel pathway for the biodegradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by a Xanthomonas sp. strain ICH12. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102, 1468–1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nair, I. C., Jayachandran, K., & Shashidhar, S. (2007). Treatment of paper factory effluent using a phenol degrading Alcaligenes sp. under free and immobilized conditions. Bioresource Technology, 98, 714–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nam, K., & Kukor, J. (2000). Combined ozonation and biodegradation for remediation of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil. Biodegradation, 11, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nam, K., Rodríguez, W., & Kukor, J. (2001). Enhanced degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by biodegradation combined with a modified Fenton reaction. Chemosphere, 45, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-127-SSA1-1994 (1994). Límites permisibles de calidad y tratamientos a que debe someterse el agua para su potabilización, Mexico.Google Scholar
  35. Poznyak, T. I., & Vivero, J. L. (2005). Degradation of aqueous phenol and chlorinated phenols by ozone. Ozone Science and Engineering, 27, 447–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Poznyak, T., Chairez, I., & Poznyak, A. (2005). Application of the model—free neural observer to the phenols ozonation in water: simulation and kinetic parameters identification. Water Research, 39, 2611–2620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prieto, M. B., Hidalgo, A., Serra, J. A., & Llama, M. J. (2002). Degradation of phenol by Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1 immobilized on Biolite in a packed-bed reactor. Journal of Biotechnology, 97, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramirez-Saenz, D., Zarate-Segura, P. B., Guerrero-Barajas, C., & Garcia-Peña, E. I. (2009). H2S and volatile fatty acids elimination by biofiltration: clean-up process for biogas potential use. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 1272–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saravanan, P., Pakshirajan, K., & Saha, P. (2008). Growth kinetics of an indigenous mixed microbial consortium during phenol degradation in a batch reactor. Bioresource Technology, 99, 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shetty, K. V., Kalifathulla, I., & Srinikethan, G. (2007). Performance of pulsed plate bioreactor for biodegradation of phenol. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 140, 346–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stoilova, I., Krastanov, A., Stanchev, V., Daniel, D., Gerginova, M., & Alexieva, Z. (2006). Biodegradation of high amounts of phenol, catechol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol by Aspergillus awamori cells. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 39, 1036–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang, C. C., Lee, C. M., & Kuan, C. H. (2000). Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by suspended and immobilized Bacillus insolitus. Chemosphere, 41, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei, G., Yu, J., Zhu, Y., Chen, W., & Wang, L. (2008). Characterization of phenol degradation by Rhizobium sp. CCNWTB 701 isolated from Astragalus chrysopteru in mining tailing region. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Van den Wijngaard, A. J., Prins, J., Smal, A. C., & Janssen, D. B. (1993). Degradation of 2-chloroethylvinylether by Ancylobacter aquaticus AD25 and AD27. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 59, 2777–2783.Google Scholar
  45. Yan, J., Jianping, W., Hongmei, L., Suliang, Y., & Zongding, H. (2005). The biodegradation of phenol at high initial concentration by the yeast Candida tropicalis. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 24, 243–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao, G., Zhou, L., Li, Y., Liu, X., Ren, X., & Liu, X. (2009). Enhancement of phenol degradation using immobilized microorganisms and organic modified montmorillonite in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 402–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elvia Inés García-Peña
    • 1
  • Paola Zarate-Segura
    • 1
  • Pamela Guerra-Blanco
    • 2
  • Tatyana Poznyak
    • 2
  • Isaac Chairez
    • 1
  1. 1.Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnología (UPIBI)-IPNMexicoMexico
  2. 2.Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Quimica (ESIQIE)-IPNMexicoMexico

Personalised recommendations