Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 6, pp 3009–3020 | Cite as

Photocatalytic Degradation of Herbicide Quinmerac in Various Types of Natural Water

  • Vesna N. Despotović
  • Biljana F. Abramović
  • Daniela V. Šojić
  • Sanja J. Kler
  • Milena B. Dalmacija
  • Luka J. Bjelica
  • Dejan Z. Orčić
Article

Abstract

The efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide quinmerac in aqueous TiO2 suspensions was examined as a function of the type of light source, TiO2 loading, pH, temperature, electron acceptors, and hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The optimum loading of catalyst was found to be 0.25 mg mL−1 under UV light at pH 7.2, with the apparent activation energy of the reaction being 13.7 kJ mol−1. In the first stage of the reaction, the photocatalytic degradation of quinmerac (50 μM) followed approximately a pseudo-first order kinetics. The most efficient electron acceptor appeared to be H2O2 along with molecular oxygen. By studying the effect of ethanol as an OH scavenger, it was shown that the heterogeneous catalysis takes place mainly via OH. The results also showed that the disappearance of quinmerac led to the formation of a number of organic intermediates and ionic byproducts, whereas its complete mineralization occurred in about 120 min. The reaction intermediates (7-chloro-3-methylquinoline-5,8-dione, three isomeric phenols hydroxy-7-chloro-3-methylquinoline-8-carboxylic acids, and 7-chloro-3-(hydroxymethyl)quinoline-8-carboxylic acid) were identified and the kinetics of their appearance/disappearance was followed by LC–ESI–MS/MS. Tentative photodegradation pathways were proposed and discussed. The study also encompassed the effect of quality of natural water on the rate of removal of quinmerac.

Keyword

Quinmerac Herbicide Photocatalytic degradation Titanium dioxide Photocatalytic degradation pathways Natural water 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vesna N. Despotović
    • 1
  • Biljana F. Abramović
    • 1
  • Daniela V. Šojić
    • 1
  • Sanja J. Kler
    • 1
  • Milena B. Dalmacija
    • 1
  • Luka J. Bjelica
    • 1
  • Dejan Z. Orčić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental ProtectionFaculty of SciencesNovi SadSerbia

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