Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 2503–2509 | Cite as

Bioaccessibility of Trace Metals in Sediment, Macroalga and Antifouling Paint to the Wild Mute Swan, Cygnus olor



The bioaccessibilities of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in eelgrass, sediment and preparations thereof with and without antifouling paint particles have been assessed by undertaken a physiologically based extraction test (W-PBET) designed to mimic the chemistry of the gizzard and intestine of the mute swan, Cygnus olor. Because Cu- and Zn-based pigments are employed in contemporary antifouling paints, concentrations of these metals were greatest in the preparations containing paint particles. Moreover, relative to total metal, both Cu and Zn displayed the highest gizzard bioaccessibilities in these preparations (about 10%). In the intestine, where most nutrients are absorbed, the accessibility of Cu was maintained while that of Zn was dramatically reduced. These observations were qualitatively consistent with metal concentrations measured in source materials relative to those in swan faeces. We conclude that Cu poses the greatest threat to C. olor inhabiting coastal areas where boat repair takes place.


Mute swan Bioaccessibility Sediment Macroalga Copper Zinc Antifouling 


  1. Beyer, W. N., & Day, D. (2004). Role of manganese oxides in the exposure of mute swans (Cygnus olor) to Pb and other elements in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Environmental Pollution, 129, 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyer, W. N., Day, D., Morton, N., & Pachepsky, Y. (1998). Relation of lead exposure to sediment ingestion in mute swans on the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17, 2298–2301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyer, W. N., Day, D., Melancon, M. J., & Sileo, L. (2000). Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19, 731–735.Google Scholar
  4. Buerge-Weirich, D., & Sulzberger, B. (2004). Formation of Cu(I) in estuarine and marine waters: application of a new solid-phase extraction method to measure Cu(I). Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 1843–1848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Degernes, L. A. (2008). Waterfowl toxicology: A review. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice, 11, 283–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elvestad, K., Karlog, O., & Clausen, B. (1982). Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark. Nordic Veterinary Medicine, 34, 92–97.Google Scholar
  7. Furman, O., Strawn, D. G., Heinz, G. H., & Williams, B. (2006). Risk assessment test for lead bioaccessibility to waterfowl in mine-impacted soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35, 450–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kobayashi, Y., Shimada, A., Umemura, T., & Nagai, T. (1992). An outbreak of copper poisoning in mute swans (Cygnus olor). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 54, 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mighanetara, K., Braungardt, C. B., Rieuwerts, J. S., & Azizi, F. (2009). Contaminant fluxes from point and diffuse sources from abandoned mines in the River Tamar catchment, UK. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 100, 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Molnar, J. J. (1983). Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Archives in Pathological Laboratory Medicine, 107, 629–632.Google Scholar
  11. Omae, I. (2003). Organotin antifouling paints and their alternatives. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 17, 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Parrott, D., & Watola, G. (2008). Deterring mute swans from fields of oilseed rape using suspended high visibility tape. Crop Protection, 27, 632–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rowell, H. E., & Spray, C. J. (2004). The mute swan Cygnus olor (Britain and Ireland populations) in Britain and Northern Ireland 1960/61–2000/01. Waterbird Review Series, The Wildfowl and wetlands. Trust/Joint Conservation Committee, Slimbridge, pp 77.Google Scholar
  14. Singh, N., & Turner, A. (2009). Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 559–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Turner, A. (2010). Marine pollution from antifouling paint particles. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60, 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Turner, A., & Ip, K. H. (2007). Bioaccessibility of metals in dust from the indoor environment: application of a physiologically based extraction test. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 7851–7856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Turner, A., Henon, D. N., & Dale, J. L. L. (2001). Pepsin-digestibility of contaminated estuarine sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 53, 671–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Turner, A., Singh, N., & Richards, J. P. (2009). Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles. Environmental Pollution, 157, 1526–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ward, R. M., Cranswick, P. A., Kershaw, M., Austin, G. E., Brown, A. W., Brown, L. M., Coleman, J. C., Chisholm, H. K., & Spray, C. J. (2007). Numbers of mute swans Cygnus olor in Great Britain: Results of the national census in 2002. Wildfowl, 57, 3–20.Google Scholar
  20. Yebra, D. M., Kiil, S., Weinell, C. E., & Dam-Johansen, K. (2006). Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints: ZnO. Progress in Organic Coatings, 56, 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations