A newly isolated white-rot fungus, Armillaria sp. strain F022, was isolated from the decayed wood in a tropical rain forest. Strain F022 was capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, including azo, triphenylmethane, and anthraquinone dyes, with an optimal efficiency of decolorization obtained when dyes added after 96 h of culture, with the exception of Brilliant Green. All of the tested dyes were decolorized by the purified laccase in the absence of any redox mediators, but only a few were completely removed, while others were not completely removed even when decolorization time was increased. The laccase, with possible contributions from unknown enzymes, played a role in the decolorization process carried out by Armillaria sp. F022 cultures, and this biosorption contributed a negligible part to the decolorization by cultures. The effect of dye to fungal growth was also investigated. When dyes were added at 0 h of culture, the maximum dry mycelium weight (DMW) values in the medium containing Brilliant Green were 1/6 of that achieved by the control group. For other dyes, the DMW was similar with control. The toxic tolerance of dye for the cell beads was excellent at least up to a concentration of 500 mg/l. The optimum conditions for decolorization of three synthetic dyes are at pH 4 and 40°C.
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A part of this research was financially supported by Research University Grant from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Vote No. 00J31), which is gratefully acknowledged.
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Hadibarata, T., Yusoff, A.R.M., Aris, A. et al. Decolorization of Azo, Triphenylmethane and Anthraquinone Dyes by Laccase of a Newly Isolated Armillaria sp. F022. Water Air Soil Pollut 223, 1045–1054 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-0922-6
- Armillaria sp. F022
- Brilliant Green
- Laccase activity
- Microbial decolorization
- Reactive Black 5
- Remazol Brilliant Blue R