Skip to main content

Insecticide Residues in Eggplant Fruits, Soil, and Water in the Largest Eggplant-Producing Area in the Philippines


This study looked into the insecticide residues in eggplant, soil, and water samples in the largest eggplant-producing community in the Philippines as well as to analyze the fate of insecticides. The study area consisted of eggplant farms in a community in the largest eggplant producer in the Philippines. A total of 20 of the environmental samples were taken from the farms and analyzed using gas chromatography. The samples were distributed spatially over a mean distance of 451 m (s.d. = 20.2 m). For eggplant pesticide application, the mean spraying time of the farmers was 1.4 (sdv = 0.53) h/day, 4.13 (sdv = 1.9) days/week, 3.79 (sdv = 0.22) weeks/month, and 1 year/cropping season. Forty percent of the farm samples of eggplants had positive reading of insecticides cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos between 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg. There was no positive reading for the 20 water samples. There was only one positive reading of chlorpyrifos in one farm out of 20 soil samples at 0.03 mg/kg. Although Prevathon and Malathion were used by all the farms for eggplant pesticide application, the liter-years of exposure to pesticide was very low for both (0.06, 0.56). Although Brodan and Magnum were not prevalently used, they had the highest liter-years of exposure to pesticide at 4.73 for chlorpyrifos, and 6.09 for cypermethrin. The amount and duration of use of insecticide is important in the determination of its persistence in vegetables and in the environment. In this study, Brodan was the largest and longest used insecticide for eggplants which explains why there was reading for both cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in the eggplants, but none for Malathion and chlorantraniliprole. The presence of insecticide in water, soil, and plants is also based on its environmental fate. Pesticide regulation and pesticide residue monitoring have been pursued to varying degrees of success in the Philippines, but implementation is considered inadequate. The study also suggests for better implementation of pesticide regulation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Afful, S., Anim, A. K., & Serfor-Armah, Y. (2010). Spectrum of organochlorine pesticide residues in fish samples from the Densu Basin. Research. Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 2(3), 133–139.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Agri Business Week (2010). Scientists develop eggplant varieties resistant to fruit and shoot borer. Accessed 25 August 2010.

  3. Bleicher, A. (2009). Will eggplant be the world’s next GM crop: Life science. Accessed 25 August 2010.

  4. British Columbia (2010). Pesticide names. Accessed 26 August 2010.

  5. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (2010). Selected Statistics on Agriculture 2010. Quezon City, Philippines. Accessed 25 August 2010.

  6. Castaneda, A. R., & Bhuiyan, S. I. (1996). Groundwater contamination by ricefield pesticides and some influencing factors. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 31(1), 83–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chen, N., Li, H., & Kalb, T. (2001). Suggested cultural practices for eggplant. Shanhua, Taiwan: AVRDC Training Guide. Asian Vegetable and Research Development Center.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cooper, S. (2010). Toxic effects of pesticide residue on fruits and veggies. Accessed 25 July 2010.

  9. Daunay, M. C., & Janick, J. (2007). History and iconography of eggplants. Chronida Horticulture, 47(3), 16–22.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2009. Chlorantraniliprole;Pesticide Tolerances. Accessed July 29, 2010.

  11. EXTOXNET (1993). Pesticide information profile. Extension toxicology network. Accessed 23 July 2010.

  12. FAO. (2000) Assessing Soil Contamination: A Reference Manual. FAO Pesticide Disposal Series. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Accessed 15 August 2010.

  13. Fernandez, R. A. (2010). The development and regulation of Bt Brinjal in India (Eggplant/Aubergine). The Philippine Star 2010. 29 September 2010.

  14. Francisco, S. R. (2009). Costs and benefits of Bt eggplant with resistance to Fruit and Shoot Borer in the Philippines. In G.W. Norton and D.M. Hautea (Eds.). 2009. Projected impacts of agricultural biotechnologies for fruits and vegetables in the Philippines and Indonesia. International Services for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and the SEAMEO Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA): Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

  15. Helle, E., Olsson, M., & Jensen, S. (1976). DDT and PCB levels and reproduction in ringed seal from the Bothnian Bay. Journal of the Human Environment, 5, 188–189.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ibitayo, O. (2007). Agricultural pesticide contamination. In J. C. Cleveland (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, D.C: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ize-Iyamu, O.K., Asia, I.O., & Egwakhide, P A. (2007). Concentrations of residues from organochlorine pesticide in water and fish from some rivers in Edo State Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(9), 237–241.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Jintana, S., Sming, K., Krongtong, Y., Thanyachai, S. (2009). Cholinesterase activity, pesticide exposure and health impact in a population exposed to organophosphates International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82(7), 833–842.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Karanth, N. G. K. (2002). Challenges of limiting pesticide residues in fresh vegetables: The Indian Experience. Food Safety Management in Developing Countries. Proceedings of the International Workshop 11–13: Montpellier, France.

  20. Lars, H. (2000). Environmental exposure to persistent organohalogen and health risks. In M. Lennart (Ed.), Environmental Medicine 2000 (Chapter 12).

  21. Le Noir, J. S., McConnell, L., Fellers, G. M., Cahill, T. M., & Seiber, J. N. (1999). Summertime transport of current-use pesticides from California’s Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada mountain range, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(12), 2715–2722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lu, J. L. (2010). Multipesticide residue assessment of agricultural soil and water in major farming areas in Benguet, Philippines. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. doi:10.100/s00244-90-9748-5.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Lukassowitz, I. (2007). Analysis and assessment of pesticide residues. Federal Institute of Risk Assessment. Accessed 29 September 2010.

  24. Nagami, H., Nishigaki, Y., Matsushima, S., & Matsushita, T. (2005). Hospital-based survey of pesticide poisoning in Japan. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 11(2), 2–7.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Maghirang, R. G. (2001). Eggplant production guide. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development: Department of Science and Technology.

  26. Machiwa, J. F. (2000). Heavy metals and organic pollutants in sediments of Dar es Salaam harbour prior dredging in 1999. Tanzania Journal of Science, 26, 29–45.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Mukherjee, I., & Gopal, M. (1992). Residue behaviour of fenvalerate, tau-fluvalinate, lambda-cyhalothrin and monocrotophos in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits. Pesticide Science, 36(3), 175–179.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Mwevura, H., Othman, C. O., & Mhehe, G. L. (2002). Organochlorine pesticide residues in Edible Biota from the Coastal Area of Dar es Salaam City Western Indian Ocean. Journal of Marine Science, 1(1), 91–96.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Rana, O. P. (2010). Plant offers much food for thought. Accessed on 26 July 2010.

  30. Sosan, M. B., Akingbohungbe, A. E., Ojo, I. A. O., & Durosinmi, M. A. (2008). Insecticide residues in the blood serum and domestic water source of cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Chemosphere, 72, 781–784.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Sozmen, B., Peker, S., Kaya, U., Erkan, M., Sozmen, E.Y. (2007). Markers of Long-Term Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides in Farmers Who Work in Viniculture and Tobacco Production in Turkey. Toxicol Mech Methods, 2007, 17(7) 379–384.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Swackhamer, D., & Hites, R. A. (1988). Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish from Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Environmental Science & Technology, 22, 543–548.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Tongzhang, Z., Shelia, H. Z., Kenneth, P. C., Dennis, D. W., Yawei, Z., & Aaron, B. (2001). Agricultural Exposure to Carbamate Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 43(7), 641–649.

    Google Scholar 

  34. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2000). Environmental Fate Effects Division. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Malathion. Memorandum from Brian Montague, Norman Birchfield, and Richard Mahler to Betty Shackleford and Patricia Moe. Accessed 10 August 2010.

  35. Varca, L. M. (2002). Pesticide toxicology and chemistry laboratory. National Crop Protection Center: University of the Philippines Los Banos.

  36. Vassilopoulou, V., & Georgakopoulous-Gregoriades, E. (1993). Factors influencing the uptake of organochlorines in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) from a gulf of Central Greece. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 285–287.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Weston, D. P., You, J., & Lydy, M. J. (2004). Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in agriculture-dominated water bodies of California’s Central Valley. Environmental Science & Technology, 38(10), 2752–2759.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This is to acknowledge the support of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jinky Leilanie Lu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lu, J.L. Insecticide Residues in Eggplant Fruits, Soil, and Water in the Largest Eggplant-Producing Area in the Philippines. Water Air Soil Pollut 220, 413–422 (2011).

Download citation


  • Insecticide residue
  • Water and soil monitoring
  • Vegetable insecticide monitoring
  • Pesticide exposure
  • Environmental fate of insecticides