Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 219, Issue 1–4, pp 157–174 | Cite as

Comparison of Relationships Between pH, Dissolved Oxygen and Chlorophyll a for Aquaculture and Non-aquaculture Waters

  • Changjuan Zang
  • Suiliang Huang
  • Min Wu
  • Shenglan Du
  • Miklas Scholz
  • Feng Gao
  • Chao Lin
  • Yong Guo
  • Yu Dong
Article

Abstract

The relationships between pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a in aquaculture and non-aquaculture waters are assessed in this paper. The research includes the evaluation of field and experimental studies at the Panjiakou Reservoir (between Aug and Oct 2009) and the review of international data covering two decades. The results indicated that typical eutrophic non-aquaculture water had mean concentrations of chlorophyll a of higher than 10 μg L−1, and significant positive correlations were found between pH, DO and chlorophyll a. When the mean concentration of chlorophyll a was less than 10 μg L−1, no correlation was found between DO and chlorophyll a for waters with a high exchange rate or heavily organically polluted natural waters. Diurnal variations were found for both pH and DO. A corresponding significant positive correlation was found between both water quality parameters. In general, when the mean concentration of chlorophyll a was less than 10 μg L−1 within aquaculture waters of low exchange rate, only a weak or no correlation at all was found between pH, DO and chlorophyll a during summer and autumn. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation between pH and chlorophyll a and a significant positive correlation or no correlation between DO and chlorophyll a were found for aquaculture waters with a high exchange rate during summer and autumn. Strong diurnal variations for both pH and DO were identified. A significant positive linear correlation between pH and DO was found for field enclosure experiments.

Keywords

Aquaculture Carp Correlation analysis Diurnal water quality variations Eutrophic waters Organic pollution 

References

  1. APHA. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation.Google Scholar
  2. Albay, M., Akcaalan, R., Tufekci, H., Metcalf, J. S., Beattie, K. A., & Codd, G. A. (2003). Depth profile of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins (microcystins) in three Turkish freshwater lakes. Hydrobiologia, 505(1–3), 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. An, K.-G., Lee, J.-Y., Kumar, H. K., Lee, S.-J., Hwang, S.-J., & Kim, B.-H. (2010). Control of algal scum using top-down biomanipulation approaches and ecosystem health assessments for efficient reservoir management. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 205(1–4), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansa-Asare, O. D., Marr, I. L., & Cresser, M. S. (2000). Evaluation of modelled and measured patterns of dissolved oxygen in a freshwater lake as an indicator of the presence of biodegradable organic pollution. Water Research, 34(4), 1079–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolton, P. W., Currie, J. C., Tervey, D. J., & Welsh, W. T. (1978). An index to improve water quality classification. Water Pollution Control, 12(2), 271–280.Google Scholar
  6. Bowmer, K. H., & Muirhead, W. A. (1987). Inhibition of algal photosynthesis to control pH and reduce ammonia volatilization from rice floodwater. Fertilizer Research, 13(2), 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cui, L. F., Huang, Z. F., Liu, Z. W., & Fu, M. X. (2008). Relationships between chlorophyll a and pH, dissolved oxygen in algal bloom water. Water and Wastewater Engineering (Supplement), 34(1), 177–178.Google Scholar
  8. Dai, T. G. (2009). Causes and treatment measures of exceedings of pH value in Yu Dong Reservoir. Water Resources Research, 30(3), 37–38.Google Scholar
  9. Domaizon, I., & Devaux, J. (1999). Experimental study of the impacts of silver carp on plankton communities of eutrophic Villerest reservoir (France). Aquatic Ecology, 33(2), 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fisher, T. R., Melack, J. M., & Grobbelaar, T. U. (1995). Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton and eutrophication of inland, estuarine and marine waters. Phosphorus in the global environment. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Freedman, B. (2002). Environmental ecology. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  12. Fukushima, T., Matsushige, K., Takamura, N., & Fukushima, M. (2004). Metabolic quotient measured by free-water method in six enclosures with different silver carp densities. Hydrobiogia, 511(3), 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Howland, R. J. M., Tappin, A. D., Uncles, R. J., Plummer, D. H., & Bloomer, N. J. (2000). Distributions and seasonal variability of pH and alkalinity in the Tweed Estuary, UK. The Science of the Total Environment, 251/252(1), 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Inorganic Chemistry Preparation Group. (1978). Inorganic chemistry (S-1). Beijing: People’s Education.Google Scholar
  15. Jak, R. G., Ceulemans, M., Scholten, M. C. T., & Straalen, N. M. (1998). Effects of tributyltin on a coastal North Sea plankton community in enclosures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17(9), 1840–1847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jayaweera, M., & Asaeda, T. (1995). Impacts of environmental scenarios on chlorophyll-a in the management of shallow, eutrophic lakes following biomanipulation: An application of a numerical model. Ecological Engineering, 5(4), 445–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jin, L. (1992). Environmental ecology. Beijing: Higher Education.Google Scholar
  18. Johnston, D., Lourey, M., & Tien, D. V. (2002). Water quality and plankton densities in mixed shrimp-mangrove forestry farming systems in Vietnam. Aquaculture Research, 33(10), 785–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaya, K., Liu, Y. D., Shen, Y. W., Xiao, B. D., & Sano, T. (2005). Selective control of toxic Microcystis water blooms using lysine and malonic acid: An enclosure experiment. Environmental Toxicology, 20(2), 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Konopka, A., & Brock, T. D. (1978). Effect of temperature on blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) in Lake Mendota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 36(4), 572–576.Google Scholar
  21. Li, Y. Y., & Wang, Z. M. (2006). The relation among dissolution oxygen (DO) to COD, inorganic nitrogen, reactive phosphate and primary yield-power in the Liaodong Gulf and Seaport of Daliaohe. Environmental Monitoring in China, 22(3), 70–72.Google Scholar
  22. Li, D. S., Xiong, B. X., Li, Q., Li, J. H., & Qi, K. J. (1994). Carrying capacity of reservoirs for feeding cage-culture of fish. Acta Hydrobiologica sinica, 18(3), 223–229.Google Scholar
  23. Li, J. P., Wu, L. B., Dai, Y. K., Wang, Q. S., Wang, S., & Zhang, L. B. (2007). Effects of different nitrogen–phosphorus ratio on the freshwater phytoplankton growth and the variations of environmental factors. Ecology and Environment, 16(2), 342–346.Google Scholar
  24. Li, M., Xie, G. Q., Dai, C. R., Yu, L. X., Li, F. R., & Yang, S. P. (2009). A study of the relationship between the water body chlorophyll a and water quality factors of the offcoast of Dianchi Lake. Yunnan Geographic Environment Research, 21(2), 102–106.Google Scholar
  25. Lin, B. Y. (1990). Simple principles of environmental geochemistry. Beijing: Metallurgy Industry.Google Scholar
  26. Liu, H., Ji, H. W., & Xin, M. (1998). The carbon dioxide system in Jiaozhou Bay. Marine Sciences, 6, 44–47.Google Scholar
  27. López-Archilla, A., Moreira, D., López-García, P., & Guerrero, C. (2004). Phytoplankton diversity and cyanobacterial dominance in a hypereutrophic shallow lake with biologically produced alkaline pH. Extremophiles, 8(2), 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lovell, C. R., & Konopka, A. (1985). Excretion of photosynthetically fixed organic carbon by metalimnetic phytoplankton. Microbial Ecology, 11(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luis, M. B., Sidinei, M. T., & Priscilla, C. (2010). Limnological effects of Egeria najas Planchon (Hydrocharita-ceae) in the arms of Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil, Paraguay). Limnology, 11(1), 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luo, D. L. (2002). Study on the distribution of dissolved oxygen in Shenhu Bay and its relationship with phytoplankton and suspended matter. Marine Science Bulletin, 21(1), 31–36.Google Scholar
  31. Masaki, A., & Seki, H. (1984). Spring bloom in a hypereutrophic lake, Lake Kasumigaura, Japan—IV: Inductive factors for phytoplankton bloom. Water Research, 18(7), 869–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moheimani, N. R., & Borowitzka, M. A. (2006). The long-term culture of the coccolithophore Pleurochrysis carterae (Haptophyta) in outdoor raceway ponds. Journal of Applied Phycology, 18(6), 703–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nixon, S. W. (1995). Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes and future concerns. Ophelia, 41(2), 199–219.Google Scholar
  34. Nyenje, P. M., Foppen, J. W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R., & Muwanga, A. (2010). Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa—a review. Science of the Environment, 408(6), 447–455.Google Scholar
  35. Odum, H. T. (1956). Primary production in flowing waters. Limnology and Oceanography, 1(1), 102–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Porrello, S., Lenzi, M., Ferrari, G., & Persia, E. (2005). Loading of nutrient from a land-based fish farm (Orbetello, Italy) at different time. Aquaculture International, 13(2), 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Qi, F., Li, X. D., Zhao, Y. H., Lei, Y. Z., & Li, Y. H. (2008). Effects of salinity, light intensity and temperature on photosynthesis in algae Cladophera expansal. Journal of Dalian Fisheries University, 23(5), 382–386.Google Scholar
  38. Ruan, J. S., & Xu, C. Y. (1998). Distribution characteristics of chlorophyll a in principal culture areas in Xinglin and Tongan of Xiamen. Journal of Fujian Fisheries, 4, 1–6.Google Scholar
  39. Ruan, X. H., Shi, X. D., Zhao, Z. H., Ni, L. X., Wu, Y., & Jiao, T. (2008). Correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and environmental factors in shallow lakes in plain river network areas of Suzhou. Journal of Lake Sciences, 20(5), 556–562.Google Scholar
  40. Scholz, M. (2006). Wetland systems to control urban runoff. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  41. Sheng, T. Q., & Xu, Y. Z. (1993). Distribution of dissolved oxygen and pH in Kuroshio area of East of China Sea. Marine Science Bulletin, 12(4), 55–62.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, V. H. (1983). Low nitrogen to phosphorus ratios favour dominance by blue-green algae in lake phytoplankton. Science, 221(4611), 669–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Snieszko, S. F. (1974). The effects of environmental stress on outbreaks of infectious diseases of fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 6(2), 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Song, G. D., Shi, X. Y., Hou, J. L., & Zhu, C. J. (2008). Iron impact on phytoplankton nutrients uptake in mesocosm. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 39(3), 209–216.Google Scholar
  45. SPSS. (2003). Analytical software. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Headquarters, Chicago, Illinois, USA.Google Scholar
  46. Talling, J. F. (1957). The phytoplankton population as a compound photosynthetic system. New Phytology, 56(2), 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, C. Q., Lu, M. L., & Huang, S. G. (1996). Study on the relationships between total production rate of oxygen and biological factors, environmental factors in Daya Bay. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 18(2), 57–65.Google Scholar
  48. Wang, X. P., Jia, X. P., Lin, Q., Li, C. H., Gan, J. L., Cai, W. G., et al. (1999). The distribution of feature and relationship between the dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and nutrition salts in the waters of Honghai Bay. Marine Science Bulletin, 18(5), 35–40.Google Scholar
  49. Wang, Z. F., Zhang, Q., Lv, H. Y., Lu, Y., Hu, C. Y., & Zeng, J. N. (2000). The simple model of dissolved oxygen about red tide forecast in the Changjiang Estuary. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 22(4), 125–129.Google Scholar
  50. Wang, A. Q., Huang, S. D., & Sun, T. H. (2001). Study on the coordinate periodic change and the relativity between pH and DO in shallow water with algae. Sichuan Environment, 20(2), 4–7.Google Scholar
  51. Wang, Z. H., Cui, F. Y., An, Q., Chen, M. M., Wu, B. F., & Guan, X. L. (2004). Study on influence of pH on the advance of eutrophication in reservoir. Water and Wastewater Engineering, 30(5), 37–41.Google Scholar
  52. Wang, L. Z., Yang, Y. H., Ren, H. L., Li, W. P., Yang, J. N., & Wu, Y. H. (2009). The dissolved oxygen situation and influential factors in the fisheries areas from Hukou to Sanmenxia section of the Yellow River. Journal of Hydroecology, 2(3), 8–12.Google Scholar
  53. Welch, E. B. (1992). Ecological effects of wastewater-applied limnology and pollutant effects (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  54. Wetzel, R. G. (1983). Limnology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders College.Google Scholar
  55. Xie, Q., Zhang, Y. B., Sun, S. L., & Zhang, B. B. (2009). Distribution characteristics of dissolved oxygen and correlating factors analysis in Liusha Bay. Environmental Science & Technology, 32(9), 39–44.Google Scholar
  56. Xu, Y. J., Fang, J. G., & Wei, W. (2008). Application of Gracilaria lichenoides (Rhodophyta) for alleviating excess nutrients in aquaculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20(2), 199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. You, L., Cui, L. F., Liu, Z. W., Yang, B., & Huang, Z. F. (2007). Correlation analysis of parameters in algal growth. Environmental Science & Technology, 30(9), 42–44.Google Scholar
  58. Yung, Y. K., Wong, C. K., Broom, M. J., Ogden, J. A., Chan, S. C. M., & Leung, Y. (1997). Long-term changes in hydrography, nutrient and phytoplankton in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 352(1–3), 107–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang, W. T. (2009). Analysis on limiting factors of eutrophication in Dashahe Reservoir. Guang Dong Water Resources and Hydropower, 9, 26–28.Google Scholar
  60. Zhang, P. L., & Sun, C. J. (2004). The influence of algae growing on pH and DO in surface water. Environmental Monitoring in China, 20(4), 49–50.Google Scholar
  61. Zhang, J. Y., Huang, J., Yan, F., & Zhang, Z. Q. (2009). Preliminary study on characters of dissolved oxygen and the relationship with pH in Meiliang Lake. Journal of Fudan University, 48(5), 623–627.Google Scholar
  62. Zhao, J. L. (2007). Environmental biochemistry. Beijing: Chemical Industry.Google Scholar
  63. Zhou, Q. Y., & Gao, T. Y. (2000). Environmental engineering microbiology. Beijing: Higher Education.Google Scholar
  64. Zhou, W. H., Yuan, X. C., Huo, W. Y., & Yin, K. D. (2004). Distribution of chlorophyll a and primary productivity in the adjacent sea area of Changjiang River Estuary. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 26(3), 143–150.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Changjuan Zang
    • 1
  • Suiliang Huang
    • 1
  • Min Wu
    • 1
  • Shenglan Du
    • 1
  • Miklas Scholz
    • 2
    • 3
  • Feng Gao
    • 4
  • Chao Lin
    • 5
  • Yong Guo
    • 5
  • Yu Dong
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Numerical Simulation Group for Water Environment, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria of the Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control in Tianjin, College of Environmental Science and EngineeringNankai UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Civil Engineering Research Group, School of Computing, Science and EngineeringUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK
  3. 3.Institute of Infrastructure and Environment, School of EngineeringThe University of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  4. 4.Water Transfer Sub-Division from Luanhe River of Water Environment Monitoring CenterHaihe River Water Conservancy CommissionHebeiChina
  5. 5.Haihe Water Resources Protection BureauHaihe River Water Conservancy CommissionTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations