Copper Uptake, Physiology and Cytogenetic Characteristics in Three Matricaria chamomilla Cultivars
Selected physiological parameters and copper uptake by three chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) cultivars (two tetraploid—‘Lutea’ and ‘Unknown’ and one diploid—‘Novbona’) exposed to 60 μM Cu over 7 days were studied. Genome size was 10.6 and 5.5 pg DNA/2C and chromosome number 2n = 36 and 2n = 18 in tetraploids and diploid, respectively. Root tissue water content and dry biomass were more reduced in diploid cultivar. Soluble proteins were depressed by Cu excess in all cultivars without respect to ploidy. Lignin accumulation and cinnamylalcohol dehydrogenase activity was the highest in Novbona. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was stimulated in tetraploid but reduced in diploid roots. Diploid contained higher amount of Cu and soluble phenols in both shoots and roots. Sulphur-containing amino acids were stimulated in Cu-exposed shoots independently on ploidy level. Potassium content was more reduced in the diploid cultivar. Our data indicate that induction of phenolic metabolism is faster in diploid cultivar which also contained higher amount of Cu. In this view, polyploidisation is a good tool for the reduction of shoot metal accumulation and growth tolerance to Cu excess. Identity of Czech tetraploid cultivar ‘Unknown’ is also discussed.
KeywordsAmino acids Chamomile ‘Bohemia’ Genome Heavy metals Phenols
This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA CR 525/07/0338) and partially by the grant of P. J. Šafárik University rector for young scientists (to JK, no. VVGS 1/09-10). We thank BSc. Silvia Malčovská for Fig. 1 editing.
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