Skip to main content

Reservoirs for Water Supply Under Climate Change Impact—A Review

Abstract

Arid region water reservoirs have different characteristics and solutions from humid regions with the most water shortage in the world socio-economically. This paper outlines possible implementation methodologies, procedures and guidance for water storage in natural and artificial reservoirs for better operation and management rules taking into account the impacts of climate change. The literature is full of methodological applications regarding the impact of climate change on the hydro-meteorological records, but the same is not available in reservoirs (surface and underground), which is the scope of this paper. In addition, reservoir structures offer the necessary mitigation and adaptation activities against the effects of climate change to design, construct, maintain, operate or increase their existing capacity. To increase groundwater reservoir capacity in local aquifers, precipitation, associated flooding and flash flooding should be diverted to artificial groundwater recharges through precipitation and surface runoff harvesting activities. Definitions of fully or partially penetrating underground dams are also explained. The real groundwater feeding application is offered from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as arid region representative. Finally, a series of recommendations are presented for the future design and management of reservoirs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Availability of Data and Materials

The author is ready to respond to any request.

References

  1. Abatzoglou JT, Parker L (2018) Climate Change and the American West. Idaho Law Review 54

  2. Abdalla OAE, Al-Rawahi AS (2013) Groundwater recharge dams in arid areas as tools for aquifer replenishment and mitigating seawater intrusion: example of Alkhod, Oman. Environ Earth Sci 69:1951–1962

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Abufayed AA, Elghueb MK, Rashed M (2002) Desalination: a viable supplemental source of water for the arid states of North Africa. Elsevier 152:75–85

    Google Scholar 

  4. Abu-Zeid M, Shiklomonov IA (2003) Water resources as a challenge of the twenty-first century. World Meteorological Organization Weather, Climate, Water WMO-No.959

  5. Adamo N, Al-Ansari N, Sissakian VK, Laue J (2020) Dam Safety: General Considerations. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering 10:2–20

    Google Scholar 

  6. Adham AKM, Kobayashi A, Murakami A (2011) Effect of climatic change on groundwater quality around the subsurface dam. Int J Geomate 1(1):25+

  7. Aguilera H, Murillo J (2009) The effect of possible climate change on natural groundwater recharge based on a simple model: a study of four karstic aquifers in SE Spain. Environ Geol 57(5):963–974

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ahmad Z, Butt MJ (2019) Environmental Study of Water Reservoirs for the Watershed Management in Pakistan. Earth Syst Environ 3:613–623. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-019-00131-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Alley WM (2001) Ground water and climate. Ground Water 39(2):161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Almazroui M, Şen Z, Mohorji AM et al (2019) Impacts of Climate Change on Water Engineering Structures in Arid Regions: Case Studies in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Earth Syst Environ 3:43–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-018-0082-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva. 210 pp

  12. Bao Z et al (2019) The impact of climate variability and land use/cover change on the water balance in the Middle Yellow River Basin, China. J Hydrol 577:123942

  13. Barthel R, Sonneveld BGJS, Goetzinger J, Keyzer MA, Pande S, Printz A, Gaiser T (2009) Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Oueme basin, Benin. West Africa Phys Chem Earth 34(4–5):236–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Boé J, Terray L, Martin E, Habets F (2009) Projected changes in components of the hydrological cycle in French river basins during the 21st century. Water Resour Res 45:1–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bulti AT (2021) The Influence of Dam Construction on the Catchment Hydrologic Behavior and its Effects on a Discharge Forecast in Hydrological Models. Water Resour Manage 35:2023–2037. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02829-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bussi G et al (2018) Modelling the effects of climate and land-use change on the hydrochemistry and ecology of the River Wye (Wales). Sci Total Environ 627:733–743

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Costanza-Robinson MS, Estabrook BD, Fouhey DF (2011) Representative elementary volume estimation for porosity, moisture saturation, and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media: Data quality implications. Water Resources Research

  18. De Laat PJM, Nonner JC (2012) Artificial recharge with surface water; a pilot project in wadi Madoneh. Jordan Environ Earth Sci 65:1251–1263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1372-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Deng K et al (2016) Three Gorges Dam alters the Changjiang (Yangtze) river water cycle in the dry seasons: Evidence from H-O isotopes. Sci Total Environ 562:89–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. DeNicola E, Aburizaiza OS, Siddique A, Khwaja H, Carpenter DO (2015) Climate change and water scarcity. The case of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Global Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.08.005

  21. Doğan S (2002) Mimarlıkta su öğesi ve akvaryum yapıları, (Water factor and acvarium structures in architecture) (Basılmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Turkey

  22. Dortaj A, Maghsoudy S, Doulati Ardejani F et al (2020) Locating suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams in semiarid region of Iran: using modified ELECTRE III. Sustain. Water Resour Manag 6(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00362-2

  23. Farquharson FAK, Meigh JR, Sutcliffe JV (1992) Regional flood frequency analysis in arid and semi-arid areas. J Hydrol 138(3–4):487–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Fearnside P (2012) Brazil’s Amazon Forest in Mitigating Global Warming: Unresolved Controversies. Climate Policy 12(1):70–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2011.581571

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Foster F, Tuinhof A (2004) Brazil, Kenya: Subsurface dams to augment groundwater storage in basement terrain for human subsistence. World Bank Sustainable Groundwater Management Lessons from Practice pp. 1–8

  26. Fujiwara Y, Fujita M (2006) Possibility of water resources development by construction the underground dam in desertificating area of Burkina Faso - From a view point of infrastructure preparation for combat desertification -. J Struc Mech Earthq Eng (g) 62(2):246–257 ([In Japanese with English summary])

    Google Scholar 

  27. George MW, Hotchkiss R, Huffaker R (2016) Reservoir Sustainability and Sediment Management. J Water Resour Plan Manag 143(3):04016077

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Giertz S, Diekkruger B, Jaeger A, Schopp M( 2006) An interdisciplinary scenario analysis to assess the water availability and water consumption in the Upper Oueme. Adv Geosci 9 10.5194/adgeo-9-3-2006

  29. Glassley WE, Nitao JJ, Grant CW, Johnson JW, Steefel CI, Kercher JR (2003) The impact of climate change on vadose zone pore waters and its implication for long-term monitoring. Comput Geosci 29(3):399–411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Green TR, Taniguchi M, Kooi H, Gurdak JJ, Allen DM, Hiscock KM, Treidel H, Aureli A (2011) Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. J Hydrol 405(3–4):532–560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Grill G et al (2019) Mapping the world’s free-flowing rivers. Nature 569(7755):215–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Gurdak JJ, Hanson RT, McMahon PB, Bruce BW, McCray JE, Thyne GD, Reedy RC (2007) Climate variability controls on unsaturated water and chemical movement, High Plains aquifer, USA. Vadose Zone J 6(3):533–547

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Gurdak JJ, Walvoord MA, McMahon PB (2008) Susceptibility to enhanced chemical migration from depression-focused preferential flow. High Plains Aquifer Vadose Zone J 7(4):1172–1184

    Google Scholar 

  34. Habets F, Philippe E, Martin E, David C, Leseur F (2014) Small farm dams: impact on river flows and sustainability in a 836 context of climate change. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 18:4207–4222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Habets F, Molénat J, Carluer N, Douez O (2018) The cumulative impacts of small reservoirs on hydrology: A review. Sci Total Environ 643:850–867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Herrera-Pantoja M, Hiscock KM (2008) The effects of climate change on potential groundwater recharge in Great Britain. Hydrol Process 22(1):73–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hogg W (1980) Time Distribution of Short Duration Storm Rainfall in Canada. Proc Canadian Hydrology Symposium 80, NRCC, Ottawa, pp. 53–63

  38. Huff F (1967) Time distribution of rainfall in heavy storms. Water Resour Res 3(4):1007–1019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Huff F (1986) Urban hydrology review (Robert E. Horton Lecture, Sixth Conference on Hydrometeorology, American Meteorological Society). Bull Am Meteorol Soc 67(6): 703–712

  40. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by J. T. Houghton et al. 881 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York

  41. IPCC (2007) IPCC fourth assessment report working group I report “the physical science basis.” Cambridge University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  42. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

  43. Ishida S, Tsuchihara T, Yoshimoto S, Masayuki I (2011) Sustainable Use of Groundwater with Underground Dams. Jpn Agric Res Quart 45(1):51–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Jin H, Yoon TK, Begum MS, Lee EJ, Oh NO, Kang N, Park JH (2018) Longitudinal discontinuities in riverine greenhouse gas dynamics generated by dams and urban wastewater. Biogeosciences 15:6349–6369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Jyrkam MI, Sykes JF (2007) The impact of climate change on spatially varying groundwater recharge in the grand river watershed (Ontario). J Hydrol 338(3–4):237–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kundzewicz ZW, Krysanovad V, Benestadb RE, Hovb Ø, Piniewskic M, Otto IM (2018) Uncertainty in Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources 79:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  47. Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW et al (2007) Freshwater resources and their management. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 173–210

    Google Scholar 

  48. Kundzewicz KW, Döll P (2009) Will groundwater ease freshwater stress under climate change? Hydrol Sci J 54:665–675

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Kummu M, Varis O (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir rapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85(3–4):275–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Lu C, Ji K, Wang W et al (2021) Estimation of the Interaction Between Groundwater and Surface Water Based on Flow Routing Using an Improved Nonlinear Muskingum-Cunge Method. Water Resour Manage 35:2649–2666. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02857-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Lionello P, Scarascia L (2018) The relation between climate change in the Mediterranean region and global warming. Reg Environ Change 18:1481–1493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1290-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Maure ́ G, Pinto I, Ndebele-Murisa M, Muthige M, Lennard C, Nikulin G, Dosio A, Meque A (2020) The southern African climate under 1.5 ◦C and 2 ◦C of global warming as simulated by CORDEX regional climate models. Environ Res Lett 13:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  53. Meziani A, Remini B, Boutoutaou D (2020) Estimating Evaporation from Dam-Reservoirs in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Case of Algeria. J Eng Appl Sci 15(9):2097–2107

    Google Scholar 

  54. Milly PCD, Betancourt J, Falkenmark M, Hirsch RM, Kundzewicz ZW, Lettenmaier DP, Stouffer RJ (2008) Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management? Science 319:573–574. https://www.sciencemag.org

  55. Mohorji AM, Şen Z, Almazroui M (2017) Trend Analyses Revision and Global Monthly Temperature Innovative Multi-Duration Analysis. Earth Syst Environ 1:9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-017-0014-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Narr CF et al (2019) Quantifying the effects of surface conveyance of treated wastewater effluent on groundwater, surface water, and nutrient dynamics in a large river floodplain. Ecol Eng 129:123–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Nazari-Sharabian M, Ahmad S, Karakouzian M (2018) Climate Change and Eutrophication: A Short Review. Eng Technol Appl Sci Res 8(6):3668–3672

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Nerantzaki SD, Hristopulos DT, Nikolaidis NP (2020) Estimation of the uncertainty of hydrologic predictions in a karstic Mediterranean watershed. Sci Total Environ 137131

  59. Norouzi N (2020) Climate change impacts on the water flow to the reservoir of the Dez Dam basin. Water Cycle 1:113–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Novicky O, Kasparek L, Uhlik J (2010) Vulnerability of groundwater resources in different hydrogeology conditions to climate change. In: Taniguchi M, Holman IP (eds) Groundwater response to changing climate, International Association of Hydrogeologists. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  61. Ogilvie A et al (2019) Socio-hydrological drivers of agricultural water use in small reservoirs. Agric Water Manag 218:17–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Oorschot MV, Kleinhans M, Buijse T, Geerling G, Middelkoop H (2018) Combined effects of climate change and dam construction on riverine Ecosystems. Ecol Eng 120:329–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Ouysse S, Laftouhi NE, Tajeddine K (2010) Impacts of climate variability on the water resources in the Draa basin (Morocco): analysis of the rainfall regime and groundwater recharge. In: Taniguchi M, Holman IP (eds) Groundwater response to changing climate, International Association of Hydrogeologists selected paper. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 27–48

    Google Scholar 

  64. Payne JT, Wood AW, Hamlet AF, Palmer RN, Lettenmaier DP (2004) Mitigating the effects of climate change on the water resources of the Columbia River Basin. Clim Chang 62:233–256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Phillips FM (1994) Environmental tracers for water in desert soils of the American Southwest. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:15–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Pipkin BW, Trent DD, Hazlett R, Bierman P (2014) Geology and Environment. Ed. Berg, A., Yolanda Cossio Publisher

  67. RAE Royal Academy of Engineering (2011) Infrastructure, engineering and climate change adaptation—ensuring services in an uncertain future. Published by The Royal Academy of Engineering on behalf of Engineering the Future. The Royal Academy of Engineers

  68. Ragab R, Prudhomme C (2002) Climate Change and water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions: prospects and challenges for the 21st century. Biosys Eng 81:3–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Sandstrom K (1995) Modeling the effects of rainfall variability on groundwater recharge in semi-arid Tanzania. Nordic Hydrol 26:313–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Salinger MJ (2005) Climate Variability and Change: Past, Present and Future – An Overview. Clim Change 70(1):9–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-5936-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Scheepers H, Wang J, Gan TY, Kuo CC (2018) The impact of climate changes on inland waterway transport: Effects of low water levels on the Mackenzie River. J Hydrol 566:285–298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Sharda VN, Kurothe RS, Sena DR, Pande VC, Tiwari SP (2006) Estimation of groundwater recharge from water storage structures in a semi-arid climate of India. J Hydrol 329(1–2):224–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Shrestha B, Maskey S, Babel MS, van Griensven A, Uhlenbrook S (2018) Sediment related impacts of climate change and reservoir development in the Lower Mekong River Basin: a case study of the Nam Ou Basin. Lao PDR Climatic Change 149(1):13–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Shuai P, Chen X, Song S et al (2020) Dam Operations and Subsurface Hydrogeology Control Dynamics of Hydrologic Exchange Flows in a Regulated River Reach. Water Resour Res 55:2593–2612

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Sohoulande Djebou DC, Singh VP (2016) Impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle and implications for society. Environ Soc Psychol 1(1):36–49. https://doi.org/10.18063/ESP.2016.01.002

  76. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  77. Subyani A, Şen Z (2006) Refined chloride mass-balance method and its application in Saudi Arabia. Hydrol Process 20(20):4373–4380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Şen Z (2008) Wadi Hydrology, CRC Press, Taylor and Fracis Group, 347 pages

  79. Şen Z (2020) Water Structures and Climate Change Impact: a Review. Water Resour Manag 34(13):1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-020-02665-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Şen Z, Al Alsheikh A, Al-Turbak AS et al (2013) Climate change impact and runoff harvesting in arid regions. Arab J Geosci 6:287–295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-011-0354-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Tague C, Grant G, Farrell M, Choate J, Jefferson A (2008) Deep groundwater mediates streamflow response to climate warming in the Oregon Cascades. Clim Change 86(1–2):189–210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Taylor RG, Scanlon B, Döll P et al (2013) Ground water and climate change. Nat Clim Chang 3(4):322–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. van der Gun JAM (2010) Climate change and alluvial aquifers in arid regions: examples from Yemen. In: Ludwig F, Kabat P, Schaik H, Valk M (eds) Climate change adaptation in the water sector. Earthscan Publishing, London, pp 159–176

    Google Scholar 

  84. Vázquez-Tarrío D, Tal M, Camenen B, Piégay H (2019) Effects of continuous embankments and successive run-of-the-river dams on bed load transport capacities along the Rhône River, France. Sci Total Environ 658:1375–1389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Whitehead PG, Wilby RL, Battarbee RW (2009) A review of the potential impact of climate change on surface water quality. Hydrol Sci J 54(1):101–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Woldeamlak ST, Batelaan O, De Smedt F (2007) Effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete catchment. Belgium Hydrogeol J 15(5):891–901

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Yang SL et al (2014) Downstream sedimentary and geomorphic impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Earth Sci Rev 138:469–486

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Yifru BA, Kim MG, Lee JW, Kim IH, Chang SW, Chung IM (2021) Water Storage in Dry Riverbeds of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: Overview, Challenges, and Prospects of Sand Dam Technology. Sustainability 13(11):5905

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Youssef AM, Pradhan B, Gaber AFD, Buchroithner MF (2009) Geomorphological hazards analysis along the Egyptian Red Sea Coast between Safaga and Quseir. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:751–766

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

There is no funding source for the article.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All the contribution is by single author.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zekâi Şen.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

The author approves all the ethical rules stated by WRM journal.

Consent to Participate

This is a single author article.

Consent to Publish

From my side I give the permission to publish this work.

Competing Interests

There is no competing interest and no conflict.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Şen, Z. Reservoirs for Water Supply Under Climate Change Impact—A Review. Water Resour Manage 35, 3827–3843 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02925-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Climate
  • Groundwater
  • Harvesting
  • Impact
  • Reservoir
  • Sedimentation