Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 8, pp 2901–2915 | Cite as

Introducing Biological Indicators into CCME WQI Using Variable Fuzzy Set Method

  • Yan Feng
  • Qian Bao
  • Liu Chenglin
  • Wei Bowen
  • You Zhang


The biological indicators are rarely used in CCME WQI, for the objective thresholds of most biological indicators are ambiguous. To solve this problem, this study establishes an improved CCME WQI model based on variable fuzzy set theory. The water quality of Wuli Lake is assessed as an illustration; and the result shows that its water quality condition is “fair”, and more measures should be adopted to control the internal phosphorus releasing and the reproduction of cyanobacteria in summer and autumn. Moreover, compared with the conventional CCME CQI, the improved CCME WQI is more comprehensive, for it not only takes the aquatic physic-chemical condition into consideration, but also introduces the biological indicators into evaluation.

Key Words

CCME WQI Biological indicators Variable fuzzy set Wuli Lake 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the contract No. 51409139 and No. 51709142, and Hubei Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under the contract No. 2017CFB312, and the Natural Science Foundation of Water Resources Department of Hunan Government under the contract No. 201723041.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Feng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qian Bao
    • 3
  • Liu Chenglin
    • 1
  • Wei Bowen
    • 1
  • You Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Hydrology Bureau of Changjiang Water Resources CommissionWuhanChina

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