Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 8, pp 2649–2664 | Cite as

Analysis and Modelling of Stormwater Volume Control Performance of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Four Climatic Zones of China

  • Xueer Jing
  • Shouhong Zhang
  • Jianjun Zhang
  • Yujie Wang
  • Yunqi Wang
  • Tongjia Yue


Rainwater harvesting has been widely used to alleviate urban water scarcity and waterlogging problems. In this study, a water balance model is developed to continuously simulate the long-term (57 to 65 years) stormwater capture efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems for three water demand scenarios at four cities across four climatic zones of China. The impacts of the “yield after spillage” (YAS) and “yield before spillage” (YBS) operating algorithms, climatic conditions, and storage and demand fractions on stormwater capture efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems are analyzed. The YAS algorithm, compared with the YBS, results in more conservative estimations of stormwater capture efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems with relatively small storage tanks (e.g., ≤50 m3). The difference between stormwater capture efficiency calculated using the YBS and YAS algorithms can be remedied by increasing storage capacity and reduced by decreasing water demand rates. Higher stormwater capture efficiency can be achieved for rainwater harvesting systems with higher storage and demand fractions and located in regions with less rainfall. However, the lager variations in annual rainfall in arid zones may lead to unstable stormwater management performance of rainwater harvesting systems. The impacts of storage and demand fractions on stormwater capture efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems are interactive and dependent on climatic conditions. Based on the relationships among storage capacity, contributing area, water demand, and stormwater capture efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems, easy-to-use equations are proposed for the hydrologic design of rainwater harvesting systems to meet specific stormwater control requirements at the four cities.


Rainwater harvesting Stormwater volume control Water balance model Operating algorithm Climatic condition Storage/demand fraction 



This work has been supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NO. YX2015-18, 2016ZCQ06, and 2015ZCQ-SB-01) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 51609004).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xueer Jing
    • 1
  • Shouhong Zhang
    • 1
  • Jianjun Zhang
    • 1
  • Yujie Wang
    • 1
  • Yunqi Wang
    • 1
  • Tongjia Yue
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Soil and Water ConservationBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina

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