Water Resources Management

, Volume 31, Issue 14, pp 4617–4631 | Cite as

Small and Mid-Sized Farmer Irrigation Adoption in the Context of Public Provision of Hydric Infrastructure in Latin America and Caribbean

  • Gonzalo Villa-CoxEmail author
  • Paul Herrera
  • Ramón Villa-Cox
  • Elvia Merino-Gaibor


According to 2013 statistics from the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (EC-LAC 2013), a mere 3.03% of the total agricultural area in ​​the region uses some type of irrigation technology. Thus, there is a high degree of sub-utilization of existing hydric infrastructure given that the supply of irrigation capacity in many countries is greater than the calculated use (see Herrera et al. 2005; IICA 2011; CONAGUA 2014, among others). Nonetheless, there are a limited number of studies that characterize the factors affecting the adoption of irrigation by small and mid-sized farmers in the influence area of irrigation projects. This manuscript presents a novel empirical decision model applicable to irrigation adoption based on exogenous and endogenous factors in the context of LAC countries, which is solved through a binary equation system with latent variables. The main goals are to capture the effect that certain idiosyncratic variables, such as lack of credit access, can have over the decision of irrigation adoption; as well as the costs associated to private goods, financed through credit, which are necessary to access to the benefits of the provision of irrigation as a public good.


Irrigation adoption Rural credit and development Recursive bivariate Probit Endogenous linear probability model 



The authors acknowledge the Prefectura de Los Ríos, Ecuador, and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for supporting the data collection phase and for allowing its use. Also, collaboration from Juan Carlos Pindo and Maria Fernanda Loor was paramount for the success of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gonzalo Villa-Cox
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Paul Herrera
    • 3
  • Ramón Villa-Cox
    • 4
    • 5
  • Elvia Merino-Gaibor
    • 1
  1. 1.Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y HumanísticasGuayaquilEcuador
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.ESPOL, Centro de Investigaciones RuralesGuayaquilEcuador
  4. 4.School of Computer Science, Institute for Software ResearchCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.ESPOL, Centro de Investigaciones EconómicasGuayaquilEcuador

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