Skip to main content

Optimal Sizing of Green Infrastructure Treatment Trains for Stormwater Management

Abstract

Green Infrastructure (GI) practices are widely used as source control measures in treating the stormwater. When treating stormwater, application of several GI practices in series as a treatment train has become popular over the implementation of a single treatment measure due to several advantages. However, the optimum sizing of the treatment trains has become an ongoing challenge for stormwater professionals due to various treatment measures and their different sizing combinations producing similar stormwater management benefits. Therefore, the present study proposes a novel methodology to optimize the sizing of GI treatment trains by formulating the problem as a single objective optimization. Minimization of Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) was used as the objective function, while the target pollution reduction levels and available land area were used as constraints. Although the results of the single objective optimization should produce a single optimum result, this study has produced a set of treatment train sizing combinations which are close to the minimum cost, but with vastly different sizes of individual treatment measures in the treatment train. These sizing combinations had produced varied values for performance measures related to environmental, economic and social objectives, which made the selection of an optimum treatment train sizing combination difficult, for a particular study area. The methodology was demonstrated by using a sample treatment train, for a case study area in Melbourne, in Australia.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Ahiablame LM, Engel BA, Chaubey I (2012) Effectiveness of low impact development practices: literature review and suggestions for future research. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:4253–4273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anzecc A (2000) Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra, 1–103

  • Barrett PJ (2001) Life–cycle costing. Better practice guide. Australian National Audit Office

  • Bastien N, Arthur S, Wallis S, Scholz M (2009) The best management of SuDS treatment trains: a holistic approach. Water Sci Technol J Int Assoc Water Pollut Res 61:263–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benedict MA & Mcmahon ET (2012) Green infrastructure: linking landscapes and communities, Island Press

  • Booth DB, Hartley D, Jackson R (2002) Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. J Am Water Resour Assoc 38:835–845

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • City of Melbourne WSUD Guidelines (2005) Applying the model WSUD guidelines. An Initiative of the Inner Melbourne Action Plan. Melbourne Water

  • eWater (2013) MUSIC by ewater user manual

  • Fletcher T, Taylor A (2007) Estimating life cycle costs of stormwater treatment measures. Aust J Water Res 11:79

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaddis EB, Voinov A, Seppelt R, Rizzo D (2014) Spatial optimization of best management practices to attain water quality targets. Water Resour Manag 28:1485–1499

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaffield SJ, Goo RL, Richards LA, Jackson RJ (2003) Public health effects of inadequately managed stormwater runoff. Am J Public Health 93:1527–1533

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hatt BE, Deletic A, Fletcher TD (2006) Integrated treatment and recycling of stormwater: a review of Australian practice. J Environ Manag 79:102–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jayasooriya VM, Ng AWM (2014) Tools for modeling of stormwater management and economics of green infrastructure practices: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jia H, Yao H, Tang Y, Yu S, Zhen J, Lu Y (2013) Development of a multi-criteria index ranking system for urban runoff best management practices (BMPs) selection. Environ Monit Assess 185:7915–7933

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaini P, Artita K, Nicklow J (2012) Optimizing structural best management practices using SWAT and genetic algorithm to improve water quality goals. Water Resour Manag 26:1827–1845

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keeley M (2011) The green area ratio: an urban site sustainability metric. J Environ Plan Manag 54:937–958

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kororoit Creek Regional Strategy (2006) 2005–2030. In: Land Design Partnership Pty Ltd (ed.) Part 2

  • Lloyd SD, Wong TH & Chesterfield CJ (2002) Water sensitive urban design: a stormwater management perspective

  • Martin C, Ruperd Y, Legret M (2007) Urban stormwater drainage management: the development of a multicriteria decision aid approach for best management practices. Eur J Oper Res 181:338–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Melbourne Water (2013) Annual Water Quality Factsheet. Long Term Water Quality Monitoring Sites 2013. Melbourne Water

  • Melbourne Water (2005) WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater. Csiro publishing, Melbourne

  • Montaseri M, Afshar MH, Bozorg-Haddad O (2015) Development of simulation-optimization model (MUSIC-GA) for urban stormwater management. Water Resour Manag 29:4649–4665

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nikolic VV, Simonovic SP (2015) Multi-method modeling framework for support of integrated water resources management. Environ Process 2:461–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skardi ME, Afshar A, Solis S (2013) Simulation-optimization model for non-point source pollution management in watersheds: Application of cooperative game theory. KSCE J Civ Eng 17:1232–1240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor A (2005) Structural stormwater quality BMP cost–size relationship information from the literature. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Melbourne, pp 53–64

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor A & Wong T (2002) Non-structural stormwater quality: best management practices: a literature review of their value and life-cycle costs, CRC for Catchment Hydrology

  • The Brooklyn Evolution (2012) Brooklyn industrial precinct strategy. Brimbank City Council

  • Tsihrintzis VA, Hamid R (1997) Modeling and management of urban stormwater runoff quality: a review. Water Resour Manag 11:136–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong TH, Fletcher TD, Duncan HP, Coleman JR & Jenkins GA (2002) A model for urban stormwater improvement conceptualisation. Global Solutions for Urban Drainage, 8–13

  • Wong TH, Fletcher TD, Duncan HP, Jenkins GA (2006) Modelling urban stormwater treatment—a unified approach. Ecol Eng 27:58–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Young K, Kibler D, Benham B, Loganathan G (2009) Application of the analytical hierarchical process for improved selection of storm-water BMPs. J Water Resour Plan Manag 135:264–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. M. Jayasooriya.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jayasooriya, V.M., Ng, A.W.M., Muthukumaran, S. et al. Optimal Sizing of Green Infrastructure Treatment Trains for Stormwater Management. Water Resour Manage 30, 5407–5420 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016-1497-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-016-1497-1

Keywords

  • Green infrastructure
  • Optimization
  • Stormwater
  • Performance measures
  • Treatment train sizing