Water Resources Management

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 899–912

Outdoor Water Use as an Adaptation Problem: Insights from North American Cities


DOI: 10.1007/s11269-015-1205-6

Cite this article as:
Gober, P., Quay, R. & Larson, K.L. Water Resour Manage (2016) 30: 899. doi:10.1007/s11269-015-1205-6


Recent efforts to influence the efficiency and timing of urban indoor water use through education, technology, conservation, reuse, economic incentives, and regulatory mechanisms have enabled many North American cities to accommodate population growth and buffer impacts of drought. It is unlikely that this approach will be equally successful into the future because the source of conservation will shift from indoor to outdoor use. Outdoor water is climate sensitive, difficult to measure, hard to predict, linked to other components of complex and dynamic urban resource systems, imbued with behavioral and cultural dimensions, and implicated in societal conflicts about climate risk, modern lifestyles, social justice, and future growth. Outdoor water conservation is not a traditional management problem focused on the water sector, assuming a stationary climate, and set aside from public debate. Instead, outdoor water is an adaptation problem, involving complex and uncertain system dynamics, the need for cross-sector coordination, strategies for dealing with climatic uncertainty, and mechanisms for engaging stakeholders with differing goals. This paper makes the case for treating outdoor water as an adaptation problem and offers a six-point strategy for how cities can better prepare their water systems for the uncertainties of climate and societal change.


Outdoor water Climate adaptation Resilience Complex systems Vulnerability Public engagement 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Science Foundation (US)
  • SES-0345945

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geographical Sciences and Urban PlanningArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Decision Center for a Desert CityArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.School of SustainabilityArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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