Water Resources Management

, Volume 29, Issue 14, pp 5275–5294 | Cite as

Spatial Optimization of Monitoring Networkson the Examples of a River, a Lake-Wetland System and a Sub-Surface Water System

  • József Kovács
  • Solt Kovács
  • István Gábor HatvaniEmail author
  • Norbert Magyar
  • Péter Tanos
  • János Korponai
  • Alfred Paul Blaschke


Monitoring systems in general have to meet numerous requirements, the most important of which are representativeness and cost efficiency. The aim of the study, therefore, was to present the spatial optimization of the monitoring networks of a river (the Danube), a wetland-lake system (Kis-Balaton & Lake Balaton), and a sub-surface water system in the watershed of Lake Neusiedl/Fertő over a period of approximately two decades using a novel method, Combined cluster and discriminant analysis (CCDA). In the case of the river the results show that the monitoring network yields redundant information on certain sections, so that of 12 sampling sites 3 can be discarded. It was not, however, enough to consider just the tributaries when it comes to optimization. In the case of the wetland (Kis-Balaton) one pair of sampling sites out of 12, while in the case of Lake Balaton 5 out of 10 can be abandoned. For the sub-surface water system, however, all the 50 sites contained exclusive information; hence, all of these were shown to be necessary. In addition, neighboring sampling sites were compared pairwise using CCDA and the corresponding results were visualized in diagrams or so called “difference maps” indicating the location of the biggest differences. This approach also indicates the researcher where to place new sampling sites should the possibility arise. The discussed methodology proved to be highly useful in the optimization of the monitoring networks of the presented water systems.


Classification into homogeneous groups CCDA R package Downsizing Environmental monitoring system optimization Water quality 



The authors would like to give thanks to the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Department VII/Unit 1 National Water Management for the dataset of the Seewinkel and to the “Lendület” program of the MTA (LP2012-27/2012) & the TÁMOP-4.2.2.B-15/1/KONV-2015-0004) project of the Pannon University for the support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical and Applied GeologyEötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Institute for Geological and Geochemical ResearchMTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth SciencesBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Department of Meteorology and Water Management, Georgikon FacultyUniversity of PannoniaKeszthelyHungary
  4. 4.Department Kis-BalatonWest Transdanubian Water AuthorityKeszthelyHungary
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesUniversity of West HungarySzombathelyHungary
  6. 6.Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources ManagementVienna University of TechnologyWienAustria
  7. 7.Currently an M.Sc. student in Mathematics at ETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland

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