Water Resources Management

, Volume 29, Issue 8, pp 2855–2874 | Cite as

Comparison of Simulation Methods for Recharge Mounds Under Rectangular Basins

  • Kudzai Chipongo
  • Mehdi Khiadani


Various methods for predicting recharge mounds that form beneath basins during recharge and the subsequent decay after recharge stops have been developed over the past half a century. In this paper several analytical methods were compared for very rapid, rapid and moderately rapid hydraulic conductivity values. Subsequently, the results were matched with numerical methods. Results obtained indicate minimal deviations among analytical solutions for predicting infiltration mounds at low recharge time (≤50 days). In addition, the deviations can be easily amended. Numerical solutions predict higher infiltration mounds (up to 32 % for the results chosen) compared to analytical methods, a variation attributed to the fewer assumptions made when solving governing groundwater equations. Yet at the lowest hydraulic conductivity rate (1.6 m/day) used in this investigation, numerical solutions are comparable to analytical solutions. Despite general unanimity on the superiority of numerical over analytical solutions for predicting infiltration mounds; the two methods have not been tested with observed field data. As a result, and to assist in discerning the best approach, analytical and numerical solutions were validated against results from three distinct field observations. The best match was noted between analytical and observed recharge mounds. In conclusion the practical applicability of each solution under various hydro-geologic conditions is summarized in the form of a table.


Groundwater Recharge Artificial Recharge Recharge Basin Mound Growth Mound Decay Long Recharge Strip 


  1. Asano T, Burton F, Leverenz H, Tsuchihashi R, Tchobanoglous G (2006) Water reuse: issues, technologies, and applications. Metcalf and Eddy, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bala A, Kumar M, Rawat KS, Singh D (2013) Estimating time for formation of recharge mound and rate of recharge from percolation tank using a mathematical model. J Agric Phys 13(1):27–32Google Scholar
  3. Bianchi WC, Haskell EE Jr (1968) Field observations compared with Dupuit-Forcheheimer theory for mound heights under a recharge basin. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/WR004i005p01049
  4. Bouwer H (2002) Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering. Hydrogeol J. doi: 10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4 Google Scholar
  5. Bouwer H, Back JT, Oliver JM (1999) Predicting infiltration and ground-water mounds for artificial recharge. J Hydrol Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(1999)4:4(350) Google Scholar
  6. Carleton GB (2010) Simulation of groundwater mounding beneath hypothetical stormwater infiltration basins. US Geol Surv Sci Investig Rep 2010–5102, p. 64Google Scholar
  7. Diersch HG (2012) FEFLOW Manuals. Accessed 6 June 2013
  8. Diersch HG, Perrochet P (2012) FEFLOW Manuals. Accessed 6 June 2013
  9. Eusuff MM, Lansey KE (2004) Optimal operation of artificial groundwater recharge systems considering water quality transformations. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1029/WR015i005p01089 Google Scholar
  10. Finnemore EJ (1995) A program to calculate ground-water mound heights. Groundwater. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1995.tb00269.x Google Scholar
  11. Flint AL, Ellett KM (2004) The role of the unsaturated zone in artificial recharge at San Gorgonio Pass, California. Vadose Zone J. doi: 10.2136/vzj2004.0763 Google Scholar
  12. Glover RE (1960) Mathematical derivations pertain to groundwater recharge. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  13. Griffin DM, Warrington RO (1988) Examination of 2-D groundwater recharge solution. J Irrig Drain Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1988)114:4(691) Google Scholar
  14. Hantush MS (1967) Growth and decay of groundwater mounds in response to uniform percolation. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/WR003i001p00227 Google Scholar
  15. Mahdavi A, Seyyedian H (2013) Transient-state analytical solution for groundwater recharge in triangular-shaped aquifers using the concept of expanded domain. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-013-0315-2 Google Scholar
  16. Marino MA (1975) Artificial groundwater recharge. II. Rectangular recharging area. J Hydrol. doi: 10.1016/0022-1694(75)90123-7 Google Scholar
  17. Molden D, Sunada DK, Warner JW (1984) Microcomputer modelling of artificial recharge using Glover’s solution. Ground Water. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1984.tb01478.x Google Scholar
  18. Nadarajah S (2009) Hantush’s M (α, β) and M*(α, β) are generalized incomplete exponential functions. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-008-9355-4 Google Scholar
  19. Pliakas F, Petalas C, Diamantis I, Kallioras A (2005) Modeling of groundwater artificial recharge by reactivating an old stream bed. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-005-3472-0
  20. Rai SN, Manglik A (2012) An analytical solution of Boussinesq equation to predict water table fluctuations due to time varying recharge and withdrawal from multiple basins, wells and leakage sites. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-011-9915-x Google Scholar
  21. Rai SN, Ramana DV, Thiagarajan S, Manglik A (2001) Modelling of groundwater mound formation resulting from transient recharge. Hydrol Process. doi: 10.1002/hyp.222 Google Scholar
  22. Rao NH, Sarma PBS (1981) Groundwater recharge from rectangular areas. Ground Water. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1981.tb03470.x Google Scholar
  23. Singh SK (2012) Groundwater mound due to artificial recharge from rectangular areas. J Irrig Drain Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000427 Google Scholar
  24. Smith AJ, Pollock DW (2010) Artificial recharge potential of the Perth region superficial aquifer: Lake Preston to Moore River. Accessed 17 March 2013Google Scholar
  25. Sumner DM, Rolston DE, Marino MA (1999) Effects of unsaturated zone on ground-water mounding. J Hydrol Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1084-0699(1999)4:1(65) Google Scholar
  26. Swamee PK, Ohja CSP (1997) Ground-water mound equation for rectangular recharge area. J Irrig Drain Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1997)123:3(215) Google Scholar
  27. Uppasit S, Srisuk K, Saraphirom P, Pavelic P (2012) Assessment of the groundwater quantity resulting from artificial recharge by ponds at Ban nong Na, Phitsanulok province, Thailand. Int J Environ Rural Dev 2012:3–1Google Scholar
  28. Vatankhah A (2013) Discussion of “Groundwater mound due to artificial recharge from rectangular areas” by Sushil K. Singh. J Irrig Drain Eng. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000555 Google Scholar
  29. Vauclin M, Khanji D, Vachaud G (1979) Experimental and numerical study of a transient, two-dimensional unsaturated-saturated water table recharge problem. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1029/WR015i005p01089 Google Scholar
  30. Warner J (1987) Mathematical development of the Colorado state university finite element 2-Dimensional groundwater flow model. Groundw Tech Rep 2. Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Warner JW, Molden D, Chehata M, Sunada DK (1989) Mathematical analysis of artificial recharge from basins. Water Resour Bull 25(2):401–411. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.1989.tb03077.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Edith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia

Personalised recommendations