Skip to main content
Log in

The Changing Water Quality Characteristics from Urban Drinking Water Sources in Guangdong, China

  • Published:
Water Resources Management Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Studies regarding the temporal-spatial variability of water source quality are crucial for protecting urban drinking water and for urban planning. With 41 typical drinking water sources in Guangdong Province as the research object, this study investigated temporal-spatial trend of different kinds of water sources in different seasons, a subject that has received little attention. The water quality index (WQI) method was used to study the quality of water sources, and the seasonal Kendall testing method was used to analyze the trends in changing water quality. The following results were obtained: (1) Overall, 22 water sources showed tendencies towards improvement and 13 showed a steady trend towards improvement. In addition, 6 sources faced water quality deterioration problems. The quality of the water source and its variations in eastern, northern and western Guangdong are satisfactory. However, the water sources with the poorest quality or that exhibited deteriorative trends were concentrated in the Pearl River Delta. (2) More water sources exhibited improving quality during the non-flood season than during the flood season. In addition, this effect was more pronounced in river-type source water than in reservoir-type source waters. During the flood season, 5 water sources exhibited deteriorative trends. Of these water sources, 3 were river-type. In addition, 18 water sources had improving water quality. Of these, 12 were river-type. During the non-flood season, only 2 river-type water sources exhibited a deteriorative trend. In addition, 19 water sources showed water quality improvements. Of these, 14 were river-type sources. (3) According to the calculated WQI and its temporal variations, this paper suggests that water sources in Guangdong can be classified into four groups, high WQI, saltatory WQI, fluctuant WQI, and low WQI. In addition, the WQI method and seasonal Kendall testing methods are appropriate for investigating the temporal-spatial variability of water source quality and can provide guidance for regional water source planning.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aldhous P (2003) The world’s forgotten crisis. Nature 422(6929):251–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Avvannavar SM, Shrihari S (2008) Evaluation of water quality index for drinking purposes for river Netravathi, Mangalore, South India. Environ Monit Assess 143(1–3):279–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belle G, Hughes JP (1984) Nonparametric tests for trend in water quality. Water Resour Res 20(1):127–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bogardi JJ, Dudgeon D et al (2012) Water security for a planet under pressure: interconnected challenges of a changing world call for sustainable solutions. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(1):35–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang H (2008) Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Res 42(13):3285–3304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang Y, Yang SF, Wei RQ et al (2011) Introduction to Xijiang river water source replacement of water supply plants in Northwest of Guangzhou. China Water Wastewater 27(22):1–4

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen Z, Wei S (2014) Application of system dynamics to water security research. Water Res Manag 28(2):287–300

  • Dan DZ, Chen WG (2007) Evolvement and characteristics of drinking water quality standards in china. China Water Waste Water 23(16):99–104

    Google Scholar 

  • Deng H, Peng PA et al (2006) Distribution and loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Xijiang river in Guangdong, South China. Chemosphere 64(8):1401–1411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dietz ME, Clausen JC (2008) Stormwater runoff and export changes with development in a traditional and low impact subdivision. J Environ Manag 87(4):560–566

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dodds WK, Oakes RM (2008) Headwater influences on downstream water quality. Environ Manag 41(3):367–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fan X, Cui B, Zhang K et al (2012) Water quality management based on division of dry and wet seasons in Pearl River delta, China. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water 40(4):381–393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Faithful J, Finlayson W (2005) Water quality assessment for sustainable agriculture in the Wet tropics—a community-assisted approach. Mar Pollut Bull 51(1):99–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fry LM, Mihelcic JR et al (2008) Water and nonwater-related challenges of achieving global sanitation coverage. Environ Sci Technol 42(12):4298–4304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fulazzaky MA (2009) Water quality evaluation system to assess the Brantas river water. Water Resour Manag 23(14):3019–3033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garriga RG, Foguet AP (2013) Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: the wash poverty index. Water Resour Manag 27(5):1501–1515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gong JZ, Xia BC, Xi FJ (2009) Relationship between land Use pattern and water security of drinking water conservation areas in Guangzhou. Res Sci 31(1):101–109

    Google Scholar 

  • Govindaraju RS, Rao AR (2010) Artificial neural networks in hydrology. Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated

  • Guangdong Environmental Information Center. http://www-app.gdepb.gov.cn/EQPublish/WaterDrinkMonth.aspx.Guangdong Provincial

  • Guangdong Water Resources Bureau and Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau (2002) The scheme of water quality monitoring, evaluation and releasing of city centralized water source in Guangdong Province.

  • Helsel DR, Frans LM (2006) Regional kendall test for trend. Environ Sci Technol 40(13):4066–4073

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hering D, Borja A et al (2010) The european water framework directive at the age of 10: a critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future. Sci Total Environ 408(19):4007–4019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirsch RM, Slack JR, Smith RA (1982) Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality data. Water Resour Res 18(1):107–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iglesias A, Garrote L, Flores F et al (2007) Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the mediterranean. Water Resour Manag 21(5):775–788

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ip WC, Hu BQ et al (2009) Applications of grey relational method to river environment quality evaluation in China. J Hydrol 379(3):284–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang T, Zhang X et al (2009) The characteristics of water quality change for the main control sections in the middle and upper reaches of East River. J Lake Sci 21(6):873–878

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan F, Husain T et al (2003) Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic region of Canada. Environ Monit Assess 88(1–3):221–248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kjellstrom T, Friel S et al (2007) Urban environmental health hazards and health equity. J Urban Health 84(1):86–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li B, Huang GQ (2008) Ecology effect and countermeasure of urbanization in pearl river estuary. Mar Environ Sci 27(5):543–546

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Lin Y et al. (2010). Grey systems: theory and applications. Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated

  • Lumb A, Sharma TC et al (2011) A review of genesis and evolution of water quality index (WQI) and some future directions. Water Quality, Exposure Health 3(1):11–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Löfgren S, Aastrup M et al (2011) Recovery of soil water, groundwater, and streamwater from acidification at the swedish integrated monitoring catchments. Ambio 40(8):836–856

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marchetto A, Rogora M, Arisci S (2013) Trend analysis of atmospheric deposition data: a comparison of statistical approaches. Atmos Environ 64:95–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ouyang T, Zhu Z et al (2006) Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the pearl river delta economic zone, china. Environ Monit Assess 120(1–3):313–325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers P (2008) Facing the freshwater crisis. Sci Am 299(2):46–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shen XC, Du X et al (2000) A study of water quality index system for water supply. Advances in Water Sci 11(3):260–265

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh KP, Basant A et al (2009) Artificial neural network modeling of the river water quality—a case study. Ecol Model 220(6):888–895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tan QX (2012) Research on risk-reducing technology of accidental pollution in the water plant. Guangzhou University, Guangzhou

    Google Scholar 

  • The National Environment Protection Bureau of China, the State Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (2002). Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002).

  • Viala E (2008) Water for food, water for life a comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Irrig Drain Syst 22(1):127–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vörösmarty CJ, McIntyre PB et al (2010) Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467(7315):555–561

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whittier RB, Rotzoll K et al (2010) Groundwater source assessment program for the state of Hawaii, USA: methodology and example application. Hydrogeol J 18(3):711–723

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wu Y, Chen J (2013) Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) inSouth China. Ecol Indic 32:294–304

  • Xie Y, TAO J et al (2012) Analysis of spatial-temporal distribution feature of maximum daily precipitation in flood period and non-flood period in Guangdong province. Yangtze River 43(15):68–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Yenilmez F, Keskin F et al (2011) Water quality trend analysis in Eymir Lake, Ankara. Physics Chem Earth, Parts A/B/C 36(5):135–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yi Q (2007) A method for security assessment of centralized surface source water area-a case study of Yuqiao reservoir. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  • Yue S, Wang CY (2004) The Mann-Kendall test modified by effective sample size to detect trend in serially correlated hydrological series. Water Resour Manag 18(3):201–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao P, Tang X, Tang J et al (2013) Assessing water quality of three gorges reservoir, China, over a five-year period from 2006 to 2011. Water Resour Manag 27(13):4545–4558

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu DS, Zhang JY et al (2010) Security assessment of urban drinking water sourcesII. Security assessment for cities in China. J Hydraul Eng 41(8):914–920

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhihua Zhu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chen, Z., Zhu, Z., Yin, L. et al. The Changing Water Quality Characteristics from Urban Drinking Water Sources in Guangdong, China. Water Resour Manage 29, 987–1002 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-014-0855-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-014-0855-0

Keywords

Navigation