A remote sensing-based approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) was tested in an area covered by olive trees and characterized by Mediterranean climate. The methodology is a modified version of the standard FAO-56 dual crop coefficient procedure, in which the crop potential transpiration, T p, is obtained by directly applying the Penman-Monteith (PM) equation with actual canopy characteristics (i.e., leaf area index, albedo and canopy height) derived from optical remote sensing data. Due to the minimum requirement of in-situ ancillary inputs, the methodology is suitable also for applications on large areas where the use of tabled crop coefficient values become problematic, due to the need of corrections for specific crop parameters, i.e., percentage of ground cover, crop height, phenological cycles, etc. The methodology was applied using seven airborne remote sensing images acquired during spring-autumn 2008. The estimates based on PM approach always outperforms the ones obtained using simple crop coefficient constant values. Additionally, the comparison of simulated daily evapotranspiration and transpiration with the values observed by eddy correlation and sap flow techniques, respectively, shows a substantial agreement during both dry and wet days with an accuracy in the order of 0.5 and 0.3 mm d−1, respectively. The obtained results suggest the capability of the proposed approach to correctly partition evaporation and transpiration components during both the irrigation season and rainy period also under conditions of significant reduction of actual ET from the potential one.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abid Karray J, Lhomme JP, Masmoudi MM, Ben Mechlia N (2008) Water balance of the olive tree—annual crop association: a modeling approach. Agric Water Manag 95:575–586
Allen RG, Pereira LS (2009) Estimating crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height. Irrig Sci 28:17–34
Allen RG, Jensen ME, Wright JL, Barman RD (1989) Operational estimates of evapotranspiration. Agron J 81:650–662
Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration. Guideline for computing crop water requirements. FAO irrigation and drainage paper n. 56, Rome, Italy, 326pp
Allen RG, Pereira LS, Howell TA, Jensen ME (2011) Evapotranspiration information reporting: I. Factors governing measurement accuracy. Agric Water Manag 98:899–920
Anderson MC, Neale CMU, Li F, Norman JM, Kustas WP, Jayanthi H, Chavez J (2004) Upscaling ground observations of vegetation water content, canopy height, and leaf area index during SMEX02 using aircraft and Landsat imagery. Remote Sens Environ 92:447–464
Bausch WC, Neale CMU (1987) Crop coefficients derived from reflected canopy radiation: a concept. Trans Am Soc Agron Eng 30(3):703–709
Brutsaert W (1982) Evaporation into the atmosphere. Theory, history and applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 308pp
Cammalleri C, Ciraolo G (2012) State and parameter update in a coupled energy/hydrologic balance model using ensemble Kalman filtering. J Hydrol 416–417:171–181
Cammalleri C, Anderson MC, Ciraolo G, D’Urso G, Kustas WP, La Loggia G, Minacapilli M (2010) The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 14(12):2643–2659
Cammalleri C, Rallo G, Agnese C, Ciraolo G, Minacapilli M, Provenzano G (2012) Combined use of eddy covariance and sap flow techniques for partition of ET fluxes and water stress assessment in an irrigated olive orchard. Agric Water Manag. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2012.10.003
Choudhury BJ, Ahmed NU, Idso SB, Reginato RJ, Daughtry CST (1994) Relations between evaporation coefficients and vegetation indices studied by model simulations. Remote Sens Environ 50:1–17
Clevers JGPW (1989) The application of a weighted infrared-red vegetation index for estimating leaf area index by correcting for soil moisture. Remote Sens Environ 29:25–37
Crow WT, Kustas WP, Prueger JH (2008) Monitoring root-zone soil moisture through the assimilation of a thermal remote sensing-based soil moisture proxy into a water balance model. Remote Sens Environ 112:1268–1281
D’Urso G, Menenti M (1995) Mapping crop coefficients in irrigated areas from Landsat TM images. European Symposium on Satellite Remote Sensing II, Europto, Paris. SPIE Intern Soc Opt Eng Bellingham (USA) 2585:41–47
Doorenbos J, Pruitt WO (1975) Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper n. 24, Rome, Italy, 143pp
Er-Raki S, Chehbouni A, Boulet G, Williams DG (2010) Using the dual approach of FAO-56 for partitioning ET into soil and plant components for olive orchards in a semi-arid region. Agric Water Manag 97(11):1769–1778
Falge E, Reth S, Brüggemann N, Butterbach-Bahl K, Goldberg V, Oltchev A, Schaaf S, Spindler G, Stiller B, Queck R, Köstner B, Bernhofer C (2005) Comparison of surface energy exchange models with eddy flux data in forest and grassland ecosystem of Germany. Ecol Model 188:174–216
González-Dugo MP, Mateos L (2008) Spectral vegetation indices for benchmarking water productivity of irrigated cotton and sugarbeet crops. Agric Water Manag 95:48–58
González-Dugo MP, Neale CMU, Mateos L, Kustas WP, Prueger JH, Anderson MC, Li F (2009) A comparison of operational remote sensing-based models for estimating crop evapotranspiration. Agric For Meteorol 149:1843–1853
Granier A (1987) Mesure du flux de sève brute dans le tronc du Douglas par une nouvelle méthode thermique. Ann For Sci 44:1–14
Hartogensis O (2006) Exploring scintillometry in the stable atmospheric surface layer. PhD thesis, Wageningen Universitait, 240pp
Heilman JL, Heilman WE, Moore DG (1982) Evaluating the crop coefficient using spectral reflectance. Agron J 74:967–971
Kalma JD, McVicar TR, McCabe MF (2008) Estimating land surface evaporation: a review of methods using remotely sensed surface temperature data. Surv Geophys 29(4–5):421–469
Mateos L, González-Dugo MP, Testi L, Villalobos FJ (2012) Monitoring evapotranspiration of irrigated crops using crop coefficients derived from time series of satellite images. I. Method validation. Agric Water Manag. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2012.11.005
Minacapilli M, Iovino M, D'Urso G (2008) A distributed agro-hydrological model for irrigation water demand assessment. Agric Water Manag 95(2):123–132
Minacapilli M, Agnese C, Blanda F, Cammalleri C, Ciraolo G, D’Urso G, Iovino M, Pumo D, Provenzano G, Rallo G (2009) Estimation of actual evapotranspiration of Mediterranean perennial crops by means of remote-sensing based surface energy balance models. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 13(7):1061–1074
Monteith JL (1965) Evaporation and environment. In: G.E. Fogg (Ed.), The State and Movement of Water in Living Organisms. XIX Sym Soc Exp Biol 19:205–234
Penman HL (1956) Estimating evaporation. Trans Am Geophys Union 37:43–46
Pereira LS, Perrier A, Allen RG, Alves I (1999) Evapotranspiration: concepts and future trends. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 125(2):45–51
Price JC (1990) Information content of soil spectra. Remote Sens Environ 33:113–121
Rallo G, Provenzano G (2013) Modelling eco-physiological response of table olive trees (Olea europaea L.) to soil water deficit conditions. Agric Water Manag 120:79–88
Rouse JW, Haas RH, Schell JA, Deering DW (1973) Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. Third ERTS Symposium, NASA SP-351 I, 309–317
Santos C, Lorite IJ, Allen RG, Tasumi M (2012) Aerodynamic parameterization of the satellite-based energy balance (METRIC) Model for ET Estimation in Rainfed Olive Orchards of Andalusia, Spain. Water Resour Manag 26(11):3267–3283
Sellers PJ, Heiser MD, Hall FG (1992) Relations between surface conductance and spectral vegetation indices at intermediate (100 m2 to 15 km2) length scales. J Geophys Res 97(D17):19033–19059
Slater P, Biggar S, Thome K, Gellman D, Spyak P (1996) Vicarious radiometric calibrations of EOS sensors. J Atmos Ocean Tech 13:349–359
Thiermann V, Grassl H (1992) The measurement of turbulent surface-layer fluxes by use of bichromatic scintillation. Bound Layer Meteorol 58:367–389
van Diepen CA, Rappoldt C, Wolf J, van Keulen H (1988) Crop growth simulation model WOFOST. Doc v4.1. Centre for World Food Studies, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Wright JL (1982) New evapotranspiration crop coefficients. J Irrig Drain Div ASCE 108:57–74
The authors thank the SIAS (Servizio Informativo Agrometeorologico Siciliano) of the Assessorato Agricoltura e Foreste della Regione Siciliana for providing the meteorological dataset, the “Azienda Agricola Rocchetta di Angela Consiglio” for kindly hosting the experiment. This work was partially funded by the DIFA projects of the Sicilian Regional Government within the Accordo di Programma Quadro “Società dell’Informazione”.
About this article
Cite this article
Cammalleri, C., Ciraolo, G., Minacapilli, M. et al. Evapotranspiration from an Olive Orchard using Remote Sensing-Based Dual Crop Coefficient Approach. Water Resour Manage 27, 4877–4895 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0444-7
- Plant transpiration
- Optical remote sensing
- Dual crop coefficient
- Actual evapotranspiration