Water Resources Management

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1351–1361 | Cite as

Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

  • Kolin J. Loveless
  • Aamir Farooq
  • Noreddine Ghaffour
Article

Abstract

Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0.041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water.

Keywords

Condensate water collection Water scarcity Water quality Climate model Air conditioning systems 

References

  1. Abderrahman WA (2010) Sustainable Water and Food Security and Wastewater Reuse in Saudi Arabia, keynote presentation delivered at a special session on Management Solutions for Water Resources in Saudi Water & Power Forum (SWPF), 5th Oct’ 2010, Jeddah, KSAGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan R (2002) Coping with water scarcity: the governance challenge. Policy paper of the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, UC BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks DB, Mehmet O (2000) Modern and traditional irrigation technologies in the Eastern Mediterranean. IDRC ReportGoogle Scholar
  4. Chartrand S (2001) Patents: draw water from air, measure how much water you drink and be kind to the fish you catch. New York Times, (July 02, 2001)Google Scholar
  5. Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Vitart F (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137(656):553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deventer J (2011) Selected Ion exchange applications in the hydrometallurgical industry. Solvent Ext Ion Exch 29(5–6):695–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drouiche N, Lounici H, Drouiche M, Mameri N, Ghaffour N (2009) Removal of fluoride from photovoltaic wastewater by electrocoagulation and products characteristics. Desalin Water Treat 7:236–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drouiche N, Ghaffour N, Naceur MW, Mahmoudi H, Ouslimane T (2011) Reasons for the fast growing seawater desalination capacity in Algeria. Water Resour Manag 25(11):2743–2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Kharraz J, El-Sadek A, Ghaffour N, Mino E (2012) Water scarcity and drought in WANA countries. Procedia Eng 33:14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gacem Y, Taleb S, Ramdani A, Senadjki S, Ghaffour N (2012) Physical and chemical assessment of MSF distillate and SWRO product for drinking purpose. Desalination 290:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghaffour N, Missimer T, Amy GL (2012) Combined desalination, water reuse and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region. Desalination & Water Treatment, in press (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.700034)
  12. Guz K (2005) Condensate water recovery. ASHRAE J 47(6):54–56Google Scholar
  13. IMWI (2008) Water for food water for life: a comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Development 51(1):161–162Google Scholar
  14. International Monetary Fund (2010) World Economic OutlookGoogle Scholar
  15. Jagerskog A (2003) Why states cooperate over shared water: the water negotiations in the Jordan River Basin. Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  16. Jalala S, Hani A, Shahrour I (2011) Characterizing the socio-economic driving forces of groundwater abstraction with artificial neural networks and multivariate techniques. Water Resour Manag 25:2147–2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jassim RK, Khir T, Ghaffour N (2006) Thermoeconomic optimization of the geometry of an air conditioning precooling air reheater dehumidifier. Int J Energy Res 30(4):237–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krysanova V, Dickens C, Timmerman J, Varela-Ortega C, Schlüter M (2010) Cross-comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia. Water Resour Manag 24(14):4121–4160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawrence T, Perry J (2010) Capturing condensate from high performance buildings. ASHRAE Journal 52(1):56–60Google Scholar
  20. Lawrence T, Perry J, Dempsey P (2010a) Capturing condensate by retrofitting AHUs. ASHRAE J 52(1):48–54Google Scholar
  21. Lawrence T, Perry J, Dempsey P (2010b) Predicting Condensate Collection from HVAC Air Handling Units. ASHRAE Trans 116(2):3–15Google Scholar
  22. McNeil M, Letschert V (2007) Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector. ECEEE Summer Study, Côte d’AzurGoogle Scholar
  23. Missimer TM, Drewes JE, Maliva RG, Amy G (2012) Aquifer recharge and recovery: groundwater recharge systems for treatment, storage, and water reclamation. Ground Water 49:771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohamed MM, Al-Mualla AA (2010) Water demand forecasting in Umm Al-Quwain (UAE) using the IWR-MAIN specify forecasting model. Water Resour Manag 24(14):4093–4120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Painter FL (2009) Condensate harvesting from large dedicated outside air-handling units with heat recovery. ASHRAE Trans 115(2):573–580Google Scholar
  26. Quteishat K (2009) Desalination and water affordability. SITeau International Conference, Casablanca, MoroccoGoogle Scholar
  27. Reddy KV, Ghaffour N (2007) Overview of the cost of desalinated water and costing methodologies. Desalination 205(1–3):340–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tropp H, Jagerskog A (2006) Water scarcity challenges in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP)Google Scholar
  29. Wilcox S, Marion W (2007) Users manual for TMY3 data sets. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organization (WHO) (2008) The World Health ReportGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu P, Drewers JE, Heil D, Wang D (2008) Treatment of brackish produced water using carbon aerogel-based capacitive deionization technology. Water Res 42:2605–2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kolin J. Loveless
    • 1
  • Aamir Farooq
    • 1
  • Noreddine Ghaffour
    • 2
  1. 1.Clean Combustion Research Center, Division of Physical Sciences and EngineeringKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)ThuwalSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Water Desalination & Reuse CentreKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)ThuwalSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations