A Cost-Effective Method to Control Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

Abstract

Intrusion of seawater into coastal aquifers is considered one of the most important processes that degrade water-quality by raising the salinity to levels exceeding acceptable drinking standards. Therefore saltwater intrusion should be prevented or at least controlled to protect groundwater resources. This paper presents a cost-effective method to control seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. This methodology ADR (Abstraction, Desalination and Recharge) includes; abstraction of saline water and recharge to the aquifer after desalination. A coupled transient density-dependent finite element model is developed for simulation of fluid flow and solute transport and used to simulate seawater intrusion. The simulation model has been integrated with an optimization model to examine three scenarios to control seawater intrusion including; abstraction, recharge and a combination system, ADR. The main objectives of the models are to determine the optimal depths, locations and abstraction/recharge rates for the wells to minimize the total costs for construction and operation as well as salt concentrations in the aquifer. A comparison between the combined system (ADR) and the individual abstraction or recharge system is made in terms of total cost and total salt concentration in the aquifer and the amount of repulsion of seawater achieved. The results show that the proposed ADR system performs significantly better than using abstraction or recharge wells alone as it gives the least cost and least salt concentration in the aquifer. ADR is considered an effective tool to control seawater intrusion and can be applied in areas where there is a risk of seawater intrusion.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abd-Elhamid H, Javadi A (2008) An investigation into control of saltwater intrusion considering the effects of climate change and sea level rise. In: Proceeding of 20th SWIM, 23–27 June 2008. Naples, Florida, USA, pp 4–7

  2. Arvanitidou SK, Koutitas CG, Katsifarakis KL (2010) Using a computational optimization tool for the management of an aquifer at Kalymnos island in Greece. In: Proceeding of 21st SWIM, Azores, Portugal

  3. Ataie-Ashtiani B, Ketabchi H (2011) Elitist continuous ant colony optimization algorithm for optimal management of coastal aquifers. Water Resour Manag 25(1):165–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bear J, Cheng A, Sorek S, Quazar D, Herrera I (1999) Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers, concepts, methods and practices. Kluwer, Dordrecht. ISBN 0-7923-5573-3

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bhattacharjya R, Datta B (2005) Optimal management of coastal aquifers using linked simulation optimization approach. Water Resour Manag 19:295–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cheng J, Strobl R, Yeh G, Lin H, Choi W (1998) Modeling of 2D density-dependant flow and transport in the subsurface. Hydrol Eng 3:248–257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Cheng A, Halhal D, Naji A, Ouazar D (2000) Pumping optimization in saltwater-intruded coastal aquifers. Water Resour Res 36:2155–2165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Das A, Datta B (2000) Optimization based solution of density dependent seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. J Hydrol Eng 5:82–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Frind E (1982) Simulation of long-term transient density-dependent transport in groundwater. Water Resour 5:73–88

    Google Scholar 

  10. Harne S, Chaube UC, Sharma S, Sharma P, Parkhya S (2006) Mathematical modelling of salt water transport and its control in groundwater. Nat Sci 4:32–39

    Google Scholar 

  11. Henry H (1964) Effect of dispersion on salt encroachment in coastal aquifers. US Geol Surv, Water-Supply Pap 1613-C, pp 70–84

  12. Huyakorn P, Anderson P, Mercer J, White H (1987) Saltwater intrusion in aquifers: development and testing of a three-dimensional finite element model. Water Resour Res 23:293–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Istok J (1989) Groundwater modeling by the finite element. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  14. Jaber I, Ahmed M (2004) Technical and economic evaluation of brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) process. Desalination 165:209–213

    Google Scholar 

  15. Javadi A, AL-Najjar, M, Evans B (2008) Numerical modeling of contaminant transport in soils—a case study. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, ASCE 134:214–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kashef A (1976) Control of saltwater intrusion by recharge wells. J Irrig Drain Div 102:445–456

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kohout F (1960) Cyclic flow of fresh water in the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida. J Geophys Res 65:2133–2141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kourakos G, Mantoglou A (2011) Simulation and multi-objective management of coastal aquifers in semi-arid regions. Water Resour Manag 25(4):1063–1074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Lee C, Cheng R (1974) On seawater encroachment in coastal aquifer. Water Resour Res 10:1039–1043

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Mahesha A (1996a) Transient effect of battery of injection wells on seawater intrusion. J Hydraul Eng, ASCE 122:266–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Mahesha A (1996b) Steady-state effect of freshwater injection on seawater intrusion. J Irrig Drain Eng, ASCE 122:149–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mahesha A (1996c) Control of seawater intrusion through injection-extraction well system. J Irrig Drain Eng, ASCE 122:314–317

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Papadopoulou MP, Karatzas GP, Koukadaki MA, Trichakis Y (2005) Modelling the saltwater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers—a case study in the industrial zone of Herakleio in Crete. Global NEST J 7:197–203

    Google Scholar 

  24. Park N, Kim S, Shi L, Song S (2008) Field validation of simulation-optimization model for protecting excessive pumping wells. In: Proceeding of 20th SWIM, Naples, Florida, USA

  25. Phillip J, de Vries D (1957) Moisture movement in porous materials under temperature gradients. Trans Amer Gephys Union 38(2):222–232

    Google Scholar 

  26. Pinder G, Cooper H (1970) A numerical technique for calculating the transient position of the saltwater front. Water Resour Res 6:875–882

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Qahman K, Larabi A, Ouazar D, Naji A, Cheng A (2005) Optimal and sustainable extraction of groundwater in coastal aquifers. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 19:99–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Rastogi A, Choi GW, Ukarande SK (2004) Diffused interface model to prevent ingress of seawater in multi-layer coastal aquifers. J Special Hydrol 4:1–31

    Google Scholar 

  29. Rejani R, Jha M K, Panda S N (2009) Simulation-optimization modelling for sustainable groundwater management in a Coastal Basin of Orissa, India. Water Resour Manag 23(2):235–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Ru Y, Jinno K, Hosokawa T, Nakagawa K (2001) Study on effect of subsurface dam in coastal seawater intrusion. In: 1st Int conf saltwater intrusion and coastal aquifers, monitoring, modelling, and management (Morocco)

  31. Scholze O, Hillmer G, Schneider W (2002) Protection of the groundwater resources of Metropolis CEBU (Philippines) in consideration of saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer. In: 17th Salt water intrusion meeting, Delft, the Netherlands

  32. Segol G, Pinder G, Gray W (1975) A Galerkin finite element technique for calculating the transition position of the saltwater front. Water Resour Res 11:343–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Sherif M, Al-Rashed M (2001) Vertical and horizontal simulation of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta Aquifer. In: 1st Int conf saltwater intrusion and coastal aquifers, monitoring, modelling, and management (Morocco)

  34. Sherif M, Hamza K (2001) Mitigation of seawater intrusion by pumping brackish water. J Trans Porous Media 43:29–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Sherif M, Kacimov A (2008) Pumping of brackish and saline water in coastal aquifers: an effective tool for alleviation of seawater intrusion. In: Proceeding of 20th SWIM, Naples, Florida, USA

  36. Todd DK (1974) Salt-water intrusion and its control. Water Technology/Resources. J Am Water Works Assoc 66:180–187

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Akbar A. Javadi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Abd-Elhamid, H.F., Javadi, A.A. A Cost-Effective Method to Control Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers. Water Resour Manage 25, 2755–2780 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-011-9837-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Seawater intrusion
  • Control
  • Finite element
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Simulation–optimization
  • ADR