Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 23, Issue 15, pp 3101–3119 | Cite as

Development of a Rainfall-Recharge Relationship for a Fractured Basaltic Aquifer in Central India

  • T. Thomas
  • R. K. Jaiswal
  • Ravi Galkate
  • Surjeet Singh
Article

Abstract

Groundwater being an important component of the hydrological cycle, estimation of its annual replenishment is essential to evolve a plan for optimum utilization. Groundwater balance approach, which is used extensively for the quantification of recharge and discharge components has been adopted for the rainfall-recharge estimation. Various inflow and outflow components have been identified and estimated for Sagar block in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, which faces acute water scarcity and continuous decline in groundwater levels. The computed recharge from rainfall varies between 122.45 and 183.71 MCM. The computed rainfall-recharge is compared with the Chaturvedi (1973), Kumar and Seethapathi (2002), Krishna (1987), and U.P. Irrigation Research Institute models. Models have also been developed to estimate rainfall-recharge for varying ranges of the annual rainfall and have been compared with the existing models. The relative error in estimation of rainfall-recharge from proposed models varies between 0.03 and 9.24%. The overall scenario is net decline in groundwater storage to an extent of −31.31 MCM over a period of 16 years from 1985–1986 to 2000–2001. The trend analysis by Kendall’s rank correlation test, regression test for linear trend and Mann–Kendall test also clearly suggests falling trends in groundwater storage at 5% significant level, thereby demonstrating over-exploitation of the groundwater aquifer. This has subsequently led to progressive decline in groundwater table in the study area. Efforts should be initiated to tap the surface water by creating storages at suitable sites and artificial recharge practices should be encouraged after identifying suitable recharge zones. Conjunctive use of the surface and groundwater along with water conservation practices and groundwater management measures should be taken up to arrest the progressive decline in groundwater levels and over-exploitation of groundwater aquifer.

Keywords

Rainfall–Recharge Trend Groundwater Overexploitation Aquifer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bhutta MN, Saeed M, Rafiq M (2007) Evaluation of groundwater balance—a case study of Mona drainage basin. Pak J Water Resour 11(2):19–26Google Scholar
  2. Burn DH (1994) Hydrologic effects of climatic change in West Central Canada. J Hydrol 160:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burn DH, Cunderlik JM, Pietroniro A (2004) Hydrological trends and variability in the Liard river basin. Hydrol Sci J 49(1):53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandra S, Mohan J (1980) The influence of Sarda Sahayak Project on the hydrological regime of Gomti Sai interbasin. Proceedings of the Helsinki Symposium, IAHS-AISH, vol 130, pp 201–207Google Scholar
  5. Chandra S, Saxena RK (1975) Water balance study for estimation of groundwater resources. Journal of Irrigation and Power, India, pp 443–449Google Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi RS (1973) A note on the investigation of groundwater resources in western districts of Uttar Pradesh. Annual Report, U. P. Irrigation Research Institute, pp 86–122Google Scholar
  7. De Silva RP (2004) Spatial variability of groundwater recharge—is it really variable? J Spat Hydrol 4(1):1–18Google Scholar
  8. Douglas EM, Vogel RM, Knoll CN (2000) Trends in flood and low flows in the United States: impact of spatial correlation. J Hydrol 240:90–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcia-Santos G, Marzol V, Morales et al (2005) Groundwater recharge in a mountain cloud laurel forest at the Garajonay National Park (Spain). Geophys Res Abstr 7:00942Google Scholar
  10. Hirsch RM, Helsel DR, Cohn TA et al (1993) Statistical treatment of hydrologic data. In: Maidment DR (ed) Handbook of hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, pp 17.1–17.52Google Scholar
  11. Isamu K (1983) Some problems relating to groundwater balance. Hydrol Sci J 28(1):125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jothiprakash V (2003) Water balance model to assess the water loss/gain in a river system. J Inst Eng (India) 84:196–200Google Scholar
  13. Kendall MG, and Stuart A (1976) Advanced theory of statistics’, vol. III. Griffin & Co., London.Google Scholar
  14. Kottegoda NT (1980) Stochastic water resources technology. The Macmillan Press Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Krishna RK (1987) Groundwater assessment, development and management. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 576–657Google Scholar
  16. Kumar CP (1992) Groundwater balance of Jamnagar district. Proceedings of Seminar on Groundwater Hydrology, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar CP, Seethapathi PV (2002) Assessment of natural groundwater recharge in upper Ganga canal command area. J Appl Hydrol AHI India XV(4):13–20Google Scholar
  18. Kundzewicz ZW, Robson AJ (2004) Change detection in river flow records-review of methodology. Hydrol Sci J 49(1):7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindström G, Bergström S (2004) Runoff trends in Sweden 1807–2002. Hydrol Sci J 49(1):69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McLeod AI, Hipel KW, Bodo BA (1991) Trend assessment of water quality time series. Water Resour Bull 19:537–547Google Scholar
  21. Ngounou NB, Jacques M, Reynauld JS (2007) Groundwater recharge from rainfall in the southern Border of Lake Chad in Cameroon. World Appl Sci J 2(2):125–131Google Scholar
  22. Partal T, Kahya E (2006) Trend analysis in Turkish precipitation data. Hydrol Process 20:2011–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Prasad RK (1992) Groundwater development and management—a national perspective. Proceedings of Seminar on Groundwater Hydrology, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Salas JD (1993) Analysis and modeling of hydrologic time series. In: Maidment DR (ed) Handbook of hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, pp 19.1–19.72Google Scholar
  25. Satyaji YRR, Thomas T, Seethapathi PV (1995) Seasonal groundwater balance study in Bandar canal command area, Krishna Delta, A.P., Part-II. NIH Report, CS(AR)-162Google Scholar
  26. Seethapathi PV, Jayaseelan AT (1982) Mean year seasonal groundwater balance for upper Ganga canal command area. NIH Report, CS-1 (Restricted)Google Scholar
  27. Seethapathi PV, Kumar CP (1988) Effect of additional surface irrigation supply on groundwater regime in upper Ganga canal command area. Part-I, Groundwater Balance, NIH Report. CS-10 (Restricted)Google Scholar
  28. Sophocleous MA (1991) Combining the soil water balance and water-level fluctuation methods to estimate natural groundwater recharge: practical aspects. J Hydrol 124:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Taheri AT, Voudouris KS et al (2007) Groundwater balance, safe yield and recharge feasibility environment: a case study from western part Iran. J Appl Sci 7(20):2967–2976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Taylor CH, Loftis JC (1989) Testing for trend in lake and groundwater quality time series. Water Resour Bull 25:715–726Google Scholar
  31. Thornthwaite CW (1948) An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geol Rev 38:55–94Google Scholar
  32. Thornthwaite CW, Mather JW (1955) The water balance. Publications in Climatology. Laboratory of Climatology. Drexel Institute of Technology, Centerton, New Jersey, USA, vol 8, no 1, pp 1–104Google Scholar
  33. Thornthwaite CW, Mather JR (1957) Instructions and tables for computing the potential evapotranspiration and the water balance. Publications in Climatology, Laboratory of Climatology, Drexel Institute of Technology, Centerton, New Jersey, USA, vol 10, pp 183–311Google Scholar
  34. Tyagi JV, Thomas T, Seethapathi PV (1994) Seasonal groundwater balance of central Godavari delta, A.P., Part-II, NIH Report, CS-117Google Scholar
  35. Von Storch H, Navarra A (1995) Analysis of climate variability—applications of statistical techniques. Springer-Verlag, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  36. Xiong L, Guo S (2004) Trend test and change-point detection for the annual discharge series of the Yangtze River at the Yichang hydrological station. Hydrol Sci J 49(1):99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yu YS, Zou S, Whittemore D (1993) Non-parametric trend analysis of water quality data of rivers in Kansas. J Hydrol 150:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yue S, Pilon P, Phinney B (2003) Canadian stream flow trend detection: impacts of serial and cross-correlation. Hydrol Sci J 48(1):51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Thomas
    • 1
  • R. K. Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Ravi Galkate
    • 1
  • Surjeet Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Hydrology, Regional CentreSagarIndia

Personalised recommendations