Water Resources Management

, Volume 23, Issue 15, pp 3101–3119 | Cite as

Development of a Rainfall-Recharge Relationship for a Fractured Basaltic Aquifer in Central India

  • T. Thomas
  • R. K. Jaiswal
  • Ravi Galkate
  • Surjeet Singh


Groundwater being an important component of the hydrological cycle, estimation of its annual replenishment is essential to evolve a plan for optimum utilization. Groundwater balance approach, which is used extensively for the quantification of recharge and discharge components has been adopted for the rainfall-recharge estimation. Various inflow and outflow components have been identified and estimated for Sagar block in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, which faces acute water scarcity and continuous decline in groundwater levels. The computed recharge from rainfall varies between 122.45 and 183.71 MCM. The computed rainfall-recharge is compared with the Chaturvedi (1973), Kumar and Seethapathi (2002), Krishna (1987), and U.P. Irrigation Research Institute models. Models have also been developed to estimate rainfall-recharge for varying ranges of the annual rainfall and have been compared with the existing models. The relative error in estimation of rainfall-recharge from proposed models varies between 0.03 and 9.24%. The overall scenario is net decline in groundwater storage to an extent of −31.31 MCM over a period of 16 years from 1985–1986 to 2000–2001. The trend analysis by Kendall’s rank correlation test, regression test for linear trend and Mann–Kendall test also clearly suggests falling trends in groundwater storage at 5% significant level, thereby demonstrating over-exploitation of the groundwater aquifer. This has subsequently led to progressive decline in groundwater table in the study area. Efforts should be initiated to tap the surface water by creating storages at suitable sites and artificial recharge practices should be encouraged after identifying suitable recharge zones. Conjunctive use of the surface and groundwater along with water conservation practices and groundwater management measures should be taken up to arrest the progressive decline in groundwater levels and over-exploitation of groundwater aquifer.


Rainfall–Recharge Trend Groundwater Overexploitation Aquifer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Thomas
    • 1
  • R. K. Jaiswal
    • 1
  • Ravi Galkate
    • 1
  • Surjeet Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Hydrology, Regional CentreSagarIndia

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