Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 22, Issue 10, pp 1409–1420 | Cite as

Comparison of AMC-dependent CN-conversion Formulae

  • S. K. Mishra
  • M. K. Jain
  • P. Suresh Babu
  • K. Venugopal
  • S. Kaliappan
Article

Abstract

The available antecedent moisture condition (AMC)-dependent runoff curve number (CN) (SCS, National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DC, 1956) conversion formulae due to Sobhani (M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 1975), Hawkins et al. (J Irrig Drain Eng, ASCE 111:330–340, 1985), Chow et al. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), and Neitsch et al. (Texas Water Resources Institute, College Station, TX, TWRI Report TR-191, 2002) were compared utilizing the NEH-4 CN-values (SCS, National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DC, 1972) as target values. The Sobhani formula was found to perform the best in CNI-conversion, and the Hawkins formula in CNIII-conversion. When evaluated on a large set of Agriculture Research Service (United States) data, a newly proposed formula performed the best of all, and the Neitsch formula the poorest, and therefore, the former was recommended for field use. The poorest performance of the latter is largely attributed to the occurrence of unreasonable negative CNI-values at low CNII-values.

Keywords

SCS-CN Curve number ARS water database AMC Rainfall runoff modeling CN USDA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bales J, Betson RP (1981) The curve number as a hydrologic index. In: Proc., int. symp. on rainfall–runoff modeling. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, CO, pp 371–386Google Scholar
  2. Beasley DB, Huggins LF, Monke EJ (1980) ANSWERS: a model for watershed planning. Trans ASAE 23:938–944Google Scholar
  3. Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Hawkins RH (1978) Runoff curve number with varying site moisture. J Irrig Drain Eng 104(4):389–398Google Scholar
  5. Hawkins RH (1993) Asymptotic determination of runoff curve numbers from data. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 119(2):334–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hawkins RH (1996) Discussion of “SCS runoff equation revisited for variable–source runoff areas” by Steenhuis T.S., Winchell M., Rossing J., Zollweg J.A. and Walter M.F. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 122(5):319–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hawkins RH (2005) Personal communications on SCS-CN model. Received via email.Google Scholar
  8. Hawkins RH, Hjelmfelt AT Jr, Zevenbergen AW (1985) Runoff probability, storm depth and curve numbers. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 111(4):330–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hawkins RH, Jiang R, Woodward DE, Hjelmfelt AT Jr, Mullem VJA (2002) Runoff curve number method: examination of the Initial abstraction ratio. www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/water/quality/common/techpapers/curve.html. Second Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, NV
  10. Hjelmfelt AT Jr (1991) Investigation of curve number procedure. J Hydraul Eng ASCE 117(6):725–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hjelmfelt AT Jr, Kramer LA, Burwell RE (1981) Curve number as random variable. In: Singh VP (ed) Proc., int. symp. on rainfall–runoff modeling. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, CO, pp 365–370Google Scholar
  12. Hjelmfelt AT, Woodward DE, Conaway G, Quan QD, Mullem VJA, Hawkins RH (2001) Curve numbers, recent development. IAHR, 29th IAHR Congress Proceedings, Beijing, China, pp 285–291Google Scholar
  13. Hope AS, Schulze RE (1981) Improved estimates of storm flow volume using the SCS CN method. In: Singh VP (ed) Proc., int. symp. on rainfall–runoff modeling. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, CO, pp 419–428Google Scholar
  14. Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) (1981) HEC-1 flood hydrograph package: users manual. US Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, CAGoogle Scholar
  15. McCuen RH (2002) Approach to confidence interval estimation for curve numbers. J Hydrol Eng 7(1):43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Univ. of Florida, and Water Resources Engineers, Inc. (1971) Storm water management model, Vol. 1 – Final report. EPA Rep. No. 11024DOC07/71 (NITS PB-203289), EPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Mishra SK, Singh VP (2003) Soil conservation service curve number (SCS-CN) methodology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands ISBN 1-4020-1132-6Google Scholar
  18. Mishra SK, Jain MK, Pandey RP, Singh VP (2005) Catchment area-based evaluation of the AMC-dependent SCS-CN-based rainfall–runoff models. Hydrol Process 19(14):2701–2718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mullem VJ, Woodward DE, Hawkins RH, Hjelmfelt AT Jr (2002) Runoff curve number method: beyond the handbook. Second Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, NV, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  20. Natale L, Todini E (1977) A constrained parameter estimation technique for linear models in hydrology. In: Ciriani TA, Maione U, Wallis JR (eds) Mathematical models of surface water hydrology. Wiley, London, pp 109–147Google Scholar
  21. Neitsch SL, Arnold JG, Kiniry JR, Williams JR, King KW (2002) Soil and water assessment tool (SWAT): theoretical documentation, version 2000. Texas Water Resources Institute, College Station, TX, TWRI Report TR-191Google Scholar
  22. Ponce VM, Hawkins RH (1996) Runoff curve number: has it reached maturity? J Hydrol Eng ASCE 1(1):11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schneider LE, McCuen RH (2005) Statistical guidelines for curve number generation. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 131(3):282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. SCS (1956) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. SCS (1964) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  26. SCS (1971) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. SCS (1972) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. SCS (1985) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. SCS (1993) Hydrology. National Engineering Handbook, Supplement A, Section 4, Chapter 10, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith RE, Williams JR (1980) Simulation of surface water hydrology. In: Knisel WG (ed) CREAMS: a field-scale model for chemicals, runoff, and erosion from agricultural management systems. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Conservation Research Report No. 26, Vol. I, Chapter 2, pp 13–35Google Scholar
  31. Sobhani G (1975) A review of selected small watershed design methods for possible adoption to Iranian conditions. M.S. Thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UTGoogle Scholar
  32. SPSS (2000) Automated curve fitting and equation discovery software. TableCurve 2D v5 for Windows, Distributor: SPSS Science Software GmbH, Germany, web site: http://www.spssscience.com/
  33. Williams JR, LaSeur WV (1976) Water yield model using SCS curve numbers. J Hydraul Div ASCE 102(HY9):1241–1253Google Scholar
  34. Young RA, Onstad CA, Bosch DD (1995) Chapter 26: AGNPS: an agricultural nonpoint source model. In: Singh VP (ed) Computer models of watershed hydrology. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, COGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Mishra
    • 1
  • M. K. Jain
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Suresh Babu
    • 3
  • K. Venugopal
    • 4
  • S. Kaliappan
    • 4
  1. 1.WRDMIndian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of HydrologyIndian Institute of TechnologyRoorkeeIndia
  3. 3.Catchment and Waterways DepartmentPublic Utilities Board (PUB)SingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Institute of Remote SensingAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations