A comprehensive study on biodiversity and environmental characteristics of three different selected study sites located on different estuarine networks viz. Matla, Saptamukhi, and Hooghly on eastern, central, and western regions, having different environmental features of Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem, India, a World Heritage Site, was conducted through six seasons of consecutive 2 years. The different sites understudy have shown variable species composition. Special emphasis was made to record the population structure of benthic fauna, which exhibited maximum density during pre-monsoon followed by monsoon and post-monsoon. Physicochemical parameters displayed a wide range of fluctuation through different seasons and also revealed differences among different study sites. Biotic community structures of different study sites have been analyzed using different community indices like similarity index, dominance index, diversity index, and evenness index. Moreover, in order to evaluate the environmental stress on the environmental health of this dynamic mangrove ecosystem of global importance, species pollution value and community pollution value have been deduced as a new model of biotic indices based on the distribution patterns of both zooplanktons and benthic fauna. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed the cumulative influence of a group of environmental parameters on the abundance of different components of biodiversity. The study site II (Saptamukhi), encircled by undisturbed mangrove islands, revealed the least pollution stress and higher biological diversity followed by Jharkhali (study site I), which is in the process of eco-restoration and Bokkhali (study site III), which has been under anthropogenic stress especially from ecotourism.
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Authors are thankful to the authorities of Vidyasagar University for laboratory and library facilities. Second and third authors are grateful to ICAR-NATP for providing them with research fellowship during this research work.
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Chakraborty, S.K., Giri, S., Chakravarty, G. et al. Impact of Eco-restoration on the Biodiversity of Sundarbans Mangrove Ecosystem, India. Water Air Soil Pollut: Focus 9, 303–320 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11267-009-9209-y