Advertisement

Volunteer Engagement in Housing Co-operatives: Civil Society “en miniature”

  • Peter SuterEmail author
  • Markus Gmür
Original Paper
  • 193 Downloads

Abstract

Housing co-operatives host miniature versions of civil society. They vitalize a social system that is shaped by formal regulations, economic functions and a population of private housing units. The study examines factors that influence a person’s willingness to volunteer in civic society using a multilevel analysis based on survey data from 32 co-operatives and 1263 members. To do so, the social exchange theory is extended to include the member value approach, which connects social engagement with the fulfillment of a range of needs, thus going beyond a narrow economic cost–benefit analysis. Study results show that volunteer engagement largely depends on the degree to which members can expect to experience their own achievement. This finding provides an explanation for significant differences in the engagement levels beyond factors that have already been determined (age, level of education). On an organizational level, the study reveals that the age of an organization influences volunteer engagement, but that the size and the degree of professionalization do not have an effect on it.

Keywords

Member value Volunteer Social exchange theory Multilevel analysis Housing co-operative 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1965). The civic culture. Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  2. Anheier, H. K., & Salamon, L. M. (1999). Volunteering in cross-national perspective. Initial comparisons. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62, 43–66.Google Scholar
  3. Anheier, H. K., & Seibel, W. (1997). Germany. In L. M. Salamon & H. K. Anheier (Eds.), Defining the nonprofit sector. A cross-national analysis (pp. 128–168). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224.Google Scholar
  5. Bakker, T. P., & de Vreese, C. H. (2011). Good news for the future? Young people, internet use, and political participation. Communication Research, 38(4), 451–470.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes, M. L., & Sharpe, E. K. (2009). Looking beyond traditional volunteer management: A case study of an alternative approach to volunteer engagement in parks and recreation. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 20(2), 169–187.Google Scholar
  7. Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139–1160.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, U., & Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002). Individualization. Institutionalized individualism and its social and political consequences. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Bekkers, R. (2005). Participation in voluntary associations: Relations with resources, personality, and political values. Political Psychology, 26(3), 439–454.Google Scholar
  10. Birchall, J., & Simmons, R. (2004). What motivates members to participate in co-operative and mutual businesses? A theoretical model and some findings. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 75(3), 465–495.Google Scholar
  11. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. D. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research. Some implications for a theory of work performance. Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 560–569.Google Scholar
  13. Boeckmann, R. J., & Tyler, T. R. (2002). Trust, respect, and the psychology of political engagement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(10), 2067–2088.Google Scholar
  14. Boneham, M., & Sixsmith, J. (2003). Volunteering and the concept of social capital. Voluntary Action, 5(3), 47–60.Google Scholar
  15. Brady, H. E., Schlozman, K. L., & Verba, S. (1999). Prospecting for participants: Rational expectations and the recruitment of political activists. The American Political Science Review, 93(1), 153–168.Google Scholar
  16. Broadbridge, A., & Home, S. (1996). Volunteers in charity retailing: Recruitment and training. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 6(3), 255–270.Google Scholar
  17. Brudney, J. L., & Meijs, L. C. P. M. (2014). Models of volunteer management: Professional volunteer program management in social work. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 38(3), 297–309.Google Scholar
  18. Bumbacher, U., Gmür, M., & Lichtsteiner, H. (2018). NPO management—A European approach: The Fribourg management model for nonprofit organizations. Bern/Stuttgart/Wien: Haupt.Google Scholar
  19. Bussell, H., & Forbes, D. (2002). Understanding the volunteer market. The what, where, who and why of volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(3), 244–257.Google Scholar
  20. Caldwell, S. D., Farmer, S. M., & Fedor, D. B. (2008). The influence of age on volunteer contributions in a nonprofit organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(3), 311–333.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, A., Gurin, G., & Miller, W. E. (1971). The voter decides. Westport: Greewnood Press.Google Scholar
  22. Caro, F. G., & Bass, S. A. (1997). Receptivity to volunteering in the immediate postretirement period. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16(4), 427–441.Google Scholar
  23. Choi, L. H. (2003). Factors affecting volunteerism among older adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 22(2), 179–196.Google Scholar
  24. Clary, E. G., & Snyder, M. (1999). The motivations to volunteer: Theoretical and practical considerations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(5), 156–159.Google Scholar
  25. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., et al. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers. A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516–1530.Google Scholar
  26. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Stukas, A. A. (1996). Volunteers’ motivations: Findings from a national survey. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25(4), 485–505.Google Scholar
  27. Cnaan, R. A., & Goldber-Glen, R. S. (1991). Measuring motivation to volunteer in human services. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(3), 269–284.Google Scholar
  28. Cnaan, R. A., Handy, F., & Wadsworth, M. (1996). Defining who is a volunteer: Conceptual and empirical considerations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25(3), 364–383.Google Scholar
  29. Constantini, E., & King, J. (1994). The motives of political party activists. A factor-analytic exploration. Political Behavior, 6(1), 79–93.Google Scholar
  30. Cook, K. S., & Rice, E. (2006). Social exchange theory. In J. DeLamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 53–76). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Cunningham, I. J., & Eys, M. A. (2007). Role ambiguity and intra-team communication in interdependent sport teams. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(10), 2220–2237.Google Scholar
  32. Cuskelly, G., McIntyre, N., & Boag, A. (1998). A longitudinal study of the development of organizational commitment amongst volunteer sport administrators. Journal of Sport Management, 12(3), 181–202.Google Scholar
  33. Deci, E. L. (1971). The effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–115.Google Scholar
  34. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.Google Scholar
  35. Degli Antonio, G. (2009). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivations to volunteer and social capital formation. Kyklos, 62(3), 359–370.Google Scholar
  36. Dermody, J., Stuart, H. L., & Scullion, R. (2010). Young people and voting behaviour. Alienated youth and (or) an interested and critical citizenry? European Journal of Marketing, 44(3), 421–435.Google Scholar
  37. Dolnicar, S., & Randle, M. (2007). What motivates which volunteers? Psychographic heterogeneity among volunteers in Australia. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 18(2), 135–155.Google Scholar
  38. Dury, S., De Donder, L., De Witte, N., Buffel, T., Jacquet, W., & Verté, D. (2015). To volunteer or not: The influence of individual characteristics, resources, and social factors on the likelihood of volunteering by older adults. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(6), 1107–1128.Google Scholar
  39. Edwards, M. (2011). Introduction: Civil society and the geometry of human relations. In M. Edwards (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of civil society (pp. 3–14). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Einolf, C. J. (2011). Gender differences in the correlates of volunteering and charitable giving. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(6), 1092–1112.Google Scholar
  41. Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335–362.Google Scholar
  42. Erlinghagen, M., & Hank, K. (2006). The participation of older Europeans in volunteer work. Ageing & Society, 26(4), 567–584.Google Scholar
  43. Ernita, F., & Al Rozi, A. (2014). Factors affecting the members participation on cooperative in North Sumatera. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3(10), 113–117.Google Scholar
  44. Festinger, L., Back, K. W., & Schachter, S. (1950). Social pressures in informal groups. A study of human factors in housing. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  45. Finkelstein, M. A., Penner, L. A., & Brannick, M. (2005). Motive, role identity, and prosocial personality as predictors of volunteer activity. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(4), 403–418.Google Scholar
  46. Freeman, R. B. (1997). Working for nothing: The supply of volunteer labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 15(1), 140–166.Google Scholar
  47. Freiy, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(5), 589–611.Google Scholar
  48. Gallagher, S. K. (1994). Older people giving care. Helping Family and community. Westport: Auburn House.Google Scholar
  49. Gaston, K., & Alexander, J. A. (2001). Effective organisation and management of public sector volunteer workers: Police special constables. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 14(1), 59–74.Google Scholar
  50. Gazley, B. (2012). Predicting a volunteer’s future intentions in professional associations: A test of the penner model. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(6), 1245–1267.Google Scholar
  51. Geiser, C., Okun, M. A., & Grano, C. (2014). Who is motivated to volunteer? A latent profile analysis linking volunteer motivation to frequency of volunteering. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 56(1), 3–24.Google Scholar
  52. Goerres, A. (2007). Why are older people more likely to vote? The impact of ageing on electoral turnout in Europe. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 9(1), 90–121.Google Scholar
  53. Hacket, A., & Mutz, G. (2002). Empirische Befunde zum bürgerschaftlichen Engagement. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 9, 39–46.Google Scholar
  54. Hager, M. A. (2014). Engagement motivations in professional associations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(2S), 39S–60S.Google Scholar
  55. Hager, M., & Brudney, J. L. (2011). Problems recruiting volunteers. Nature versus nurture. Nonprofit Managment & Leadership, 22(2), 137–157.Google Scholar
  56. Handy, F., Cnaan, R. A., Hustinx, L., Kang, C., Brudney, J. L., Haski-Leventhal, D., et al. (2010). A cross-cultural examination of student volunteering. Is it all about résumé building? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39(3), 498–523.Google Scholar
  57. Haski-Leventhal, D., & Cnaan, R. A. (2009). Group processes and volunteering: using groups to enhance volunteerism. Administration in Social Work, 33(1), 61–80.Google Scholar
  58. Haski-Leventhal, D., & Meijs, L. C. P. M. (2011). The volunteer matrix: Positioning of volunteer organizations. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 16(2), 127–137.Google Scholar
  59. Hay, C. (2008). Why we hate politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  60. Herzog, R. A., Kahn, R. L., Morgan, J. N., Jackson, J. S., & Antonucci, T. C. (1989). Age differences in productive activities. Journal of Gerontology, 44(4), 129–138.Google Scholar
  61. Hibbert, S., Piacentini, M., & Al Dajani, H. (2003). Understanding volunteer motivation for participation in a community-based food cooperative. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(1), 30–42.Google Scholar
  62. Holbrook, A. L., Krosnick, J. A., & Pfent, A. (2008). The causes and consequences of response rates in surveys by the news media and government contractor survey research firms. In J. M. Lepkowski, N. C. Tucker, J. M. Brick, E. de Leeuw, L. Japec, P. J. Lavrakas, M. W. Link, & R. L. Sangster (Eds.), Advances in telephone survey methodology (pp. 499–528). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  63. Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63(6), 597–606.Google Scholar
  64. Homans, G. C. (1974). Social behavoir. Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  65. Horne, S., & Broadbridge, A. (1994). The charity shop volunteer in Scotland: Greatest asset or biggest headache? VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 5(2), 205–218.Google Scholar
  66. Houle, B. J., Sagarin, B. J., & Kaplan, M. F. (2005). A functional approach to volunteerism. Do volunteer motives predict task preference? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27(4), 337–344.Google Scholar
  67. Hustinx, L., Handy, F., Cnaan, R. A., Brudney, J. L., Pessi, A. B., & Yamauchi, N. (2010). Social and cultural origins of motivations to volunteer. A comparison of university students in six countries. International Sociology, 25(3), 349–382.Google Scholar
  68. Hustinx, L., & Lammertyn, F. (2003). Collective and reflexive styles of volunteering. A sociological modernization perspective. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 14(2), 167–187.Google Scholar
  69. Hustinx, L., & Lammertyn, F. (2004). The cultural bases of volunteering: Understanding and predicting attitudinal differences between Flemish red cross volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(4), 548–584.Google Scholar
  70. Hustinx, L., Van Rossem, R., Handy, F., & Cnaan, R. A. (2015). A cross-national examination of motivation to volunteer. Religious context, national value patterns, and nonprofit regimes. In L. Hustinx, J. von Essen, J. Haers, & S. Mels (Eds.), Religion and volunteering. Complex, contested and ambiguous relationships. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  71. Inglis, S., & Cleave, S. (2006). A scale to assess board member motivations in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 17(1), 83–101.Google Scholar
  72. Kim, M. (2017). Characteristics of civically engaged nonprofit arts organizations. The results of a national survey. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(1), 175–198.Google Scholar
  73. Kincade, J. E., Rabiner, D. J., Bernard, S. L., Wommert, A., Konrad, T. R., Defriese, G. H., et al. (1996). Older adults as a community resource: Results from the national survey of self-care and aging. The Gerontologist, 36(4), 474–482.Google Scholar
  74. King, C. S., FelteyM, K. M., & Susel, B. O. N. (1998). The question of participation. Toward authentic public participation in public administration. Public Administration Review, 58(4), 317–326.Google Scholar
  75. Knoke, D., & Wright-Isak, C. (1982). Individual motives and organizational incentive systems. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 1, 209–254.Google Scholar
  76. Kurz, D. (2000). Die Genossenschaft baut mit an einer besseren Menschengemeinschaft. Wurzeln und Entwicklungslinien des gemeinnützigen Wohnens. In C. Caduff & J. P. Kuster (Eds.), Wegweisend wohnen. Gemeinnütziger Wohnungsbau im Kanton Zürich an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert (pp. 9–21). Zürich: Scheidegger & Spiess.Google Scholar
  77. Lee, Y., & Moore McBride, A. (2012). Institutional predictors of volunteer retention. The case of AmeriCorps National Service. Administration & Society, 44(3), 343–366.Google Scholar
  78. Leighley, J. (1996). Group membership and the mobilization of political participation. The Journal of Politics, 58(2), 447–463.Google Scholar
  79. Leonard, R., Onyx, J., & Hayward-Brown, H. (2004). Volunteer and coordinator perspectives on managing women volunteers. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 15(2), 205–219.Google Scholar
  80. Locke, M., Ellis, A., & Smith, J. D. (2003). Hold on to what you’ve got: The volunteer retention literature. Voluntary Action, 5(3), 81–99.Google Scholar
  81. Lynch, S., & Smith, K. (2012). The dilemma of judging unpaid workers. Personnel Review, 39(1), 80–95.Google Scholar
  82. Maki, A., & Snyder, M. (2017). Investigating similarities and differences between volunteer behaviors. Development of a volunteer interest typology. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(1), 5–28.Google Scholar
  83. Maran, D. A., & Soro, G. (2010). The influence of organizational culture in women participation and inclusion in voluntary organizations in Italy. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21(4), 481–496.Google Scholar
  84. Martinez, T. A., & McMullin, S. L. (2004). Factors affecting decisions to volunteer in nongovernmental organizations. Environment and Behavior, 36(1), 112–126.Google Scholar
  85. Masclet, D., Noussair, C., Tucker, S., & Viellval, M.-C. (2003). Monetary and nonmonetary punishment in the voluntary contributions mechanism. The American Economic Review, 93(1), 366–380.Google Scholar
  86. Mintzberg, H. (1979). The structuring of organizations: A synthesis of the research. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  87. Mulry-Liggan, M. H. (1983). A comparison of a random digit dialing survey and the current population survey. In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, section on survey research methods (pp. 214–219).Google Scholar
  88. Mündel, K., Duguid, F., & Schugurensky, D. (2004). Learning democracy through self-governance. The case of housing co-operative. Paper presented at the Adult Education Research Conference, Victoria, BC. http://newprairiepress.org/aerc/2004/papers/50/.
  89. Musick, M. A., & Wilson, J. (2008). Volunteers: A social profile. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Mutchler, J. E., Burr, J. A., & Caro, F. G. (2003). From paid worker to volunteer: Leaving the paid workforce and volunteering in later life. Social Forces, 81(4), 1267–1293.Google Scholar
  91. Nulty, D. D. (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys. What can be done? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(3), 301–314.Google Scholar
  92. O’Connell, B. (2000). Civil society: Definitions and descriptions. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(3), 471–478.Google Scholar
  93. Ojha, H., & Pramanick, M. (2009). Effects of age on intensity and priority of life needs. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35(1), 131–136.Google Scholar
  94. Okun, M. A., & Schultz, A. (2003). Age and motives for volunteering. Testing hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 231–239.Google Scholar
  95. Omoto, A. M., & Snyder, M. (1993). Aids volunteers and their motivations: Theoretical issues and practical concerns. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 4(2), 157–176.Google Scholar
  96. Omoto, A. M., Snyder, M., & Martino, S. C. (2000). Volunteerism and the life course: Investigating age-related agendas for action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 22(3), 181–197.Google Scholar
  97. Paffenholz, T., & Spurk, C. (2006). Civil society, civic engagement, and peacebuilding. Social development papers, 36.Google Scholar
  98. Pedersen, L. H. (2014). Committed to the public interest? Motivation and behavioural outcomes among local councillors. Public Administration, 94(4), 886–901.Google Scholar
  99. Peterson, T. J., & Van Til, J. (2004). Defining characteristics of civil society. The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law, 6(2). Retrieved from http://www.icnl.org/research/journal/vol6iss2/art_5.htm.
  100. Peugh, J. L. (2010). A practical guide to multilevel modeling. Journal of School Psychology, 48(1), 85–112.Google Scholar
  101. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  102. Roskurge, M., Poot, J., & King, L. (2016). Social capital, entrepreneurship and living standards. Differences between migrants and the native born. In H. Westlund & J. P. Larsson (Eds.), Handbook of social capital and regional development (pp. 221–254). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  103. Ruiter, S., & de Graf, N. D. (2006). National context, religiosity and volunteering. Results from 53 countries. American Sociological Review, 71(2), 191–210.Google Scholar
  104. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.Google Scholar
  105. Schlesinger, T., Egli, B., & Nagel, S. (2013). ‘Continue or terminate?’ Determinants of long-term volunteering in sports clubs. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(1), 32–53.Google Scholar
  106. Schlesinger, T., & Nagel, S. (2013). Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in swiss sports clubs. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 707–715.Google Scholar
  107. Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative influences on altruism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 221–279.Google Scholar
  108. Shih, T.-H., & Fan, X. (2008). Comparing response rates from web and mail surveys: A meta-analysis. Field Methods, 20(3), 249–271.Google Scholar
  109. Snyder, M., Omoto, A. M., & Crain, A. L. (1999). Punished for their good deeds. Stigmatization of AIDS volunteers. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(7), 1175–1192.Google Scholar
  110. Stoker, G. (2006). Why politics matters. Making democracy work. Houndsmill: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  111. Studer, S. (2016). Volunteer management: Responding to the uniqueness of volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(4), 688–714.Google Scholar
  112. Studer, S., & von Schnurbein, G. (2013). Organizational factors affecting volunteers. A literature review on volunteer coordination. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 24(2), 403–440.Google Scholar
  113. Stukas, A. A., Hoye, R., Nicholson, M., Brown, K. M., & Aisbett, L. (2016). Motivations to volunteer and their associations with volunteers’ well-being. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(1), 112–132.Google Scholar
  114. Suter, P., & Gmür, M. (2013). Member value in housing co-operatives. Paper presented at the 4th CIRIEC international research conference on social economy, Antwerp. http://www.ciriec-ua-conference.org/images/upload/pdf/PAPERS/119_Suter_txt.pdf.
  115. Suter, P., & Gmür, M. (2014). Mobility car sharing: An evolving co-operative structure. In T. Mazzarol, S. Reboud, E. Mamouni Limnios, & D. Clark (Eds.), Research handbook on sustainable co-operative enterprise. Case Studies of organisational resilience in the co-operative business model (pp. 301–326). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  116. Suter, P., & Gmür, M. (2016). Member value management in housing co-operatives. In F. Taisch, A. Jungmeister, & H. Gernet (Eds.), Genossenschaftliche Identität und Wachstum. Bericht der XVIII. Internationalen Genossenschaftswissenschaftlichen Tagung IGT 2016 in Luzern (pp. 73–83). St. Gallen: Raiffeisen.Google Scholar
  117. Sydow, J., Schreyögg, G., & Koch, J. (2009). Organizational path dependence. Opening the black box. Academy of Management Review, 34(4), 689–709.Google Scholar
  118. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  119. Tschirhart, M. (1998). Understanding the older stipended volunteer. Age-related differences among AmeriCorps members. Public Productivity & Management Review, 22(1), 35–48.Google Scholar
  120. Unger, L. S. (1991). Altruism as a motivation to volunteer. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12(1), 71–100.Google Scholar
  121. van Ingen, E., & Wilson, J. (2017). I volunteer, therefore I am? Factors affecting volunteer role identity. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(1), 29–46.Google Scholar
  122. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society. An outline of interpretive sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  123. Wilson, J. (2000). Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 215–240.Google Scholar
  124. Wilson, J., & Musick, M. A. (1997). Who cares? Toward an integrated theory of volunteer work. American Sociological Review, 62(5), 694–713.Google Scholar
  125. Wymer, W. W. (1998). Youth development volunteers. Their motives, how they differ from other volunteers and correlates of involvement intensity. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 3(4), 321–336.Google Scholar
  126. Zafirovski, M. (2005). Social exchange theory under scrutiny. A positive critique of its economic-behaviorist formulations. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228349971_Social_exchange_theory_under_scrutiny_A_positive_critique_of_its_economic-behaviorist_formulations.
  127. Ziemek, S. (2006). Economic analysis of volunteers’ motivations. A cross-country study. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35(3), 532–555.Google Scholar
  128. Zimmer, A. E. (2014). Money makes the world go round! Ökonomisierung und die Folgen für NPOs. In A. E. Zimmer & R. Simsa (Eds.), Forschung zur Zivilgesellschaft, NPOs und Engagement: Quo vadis? (pp. 163–180). Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Research on Management of Associations, Foundations and Co-operativesUniversity of Fribourg (CH)FribourgSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations