Social Entrepreneur: Same or Different from the Rest?

Abstract

A social business responds to social problems usually ignored by institutions, mobilizing resources and generating employment. To gain more knowledge about this type of enterprise, the key factors that may influence social entrepreneurship are studied and compared with nonsocial entrepreneurship. This enables advances in the scientific literature and the design of more effective policies that encourage the creation of social enterprises. To achieve this goal, after delimiting the area of study, a sample of 25,631 entrepreneurs in 59 countries was used; 9792 of these are social entrepreneurs collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project in 2015 when a special issue focused on this topic. The results show that the majority of the factors that determine the decision to undertake nonsocial entrepreneurship also condition the individual to undertake social entrepreneurship, although the nature of their relationship or the intensity of the influence changes.

Resumen

Una empresa social, además de movilizar recursos y generar empleo, da respuesta a problemas sociales desatendidos por las instituciones. Para profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores que influyen en la creación de una empresa social, en este trabajo se analizan las características del emprendedor social en comparación con el emprendedor no social. Esto permitirá avanzar en la literatura, identificando aquellos factores condicionantes en la creación de empresas sociales, lo que contribuirá a diseñar políticas más efectivas que impulsen la creación de empresas sociales. Para conseguir este objetivo, tras delimitar conceptualmente el ámbito de estudio, se analiza una muestra de 18.858 emprendedores de 59 países de los cuales 9.792 son emprendedores sociales, recogida por el proyecto GEM en 2015 cuando destinaron un monográfico especial a este tema. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la mayoría de factores que determinan la decisión de emprender no socialmente también condicionan al individuo a la hora de emprender socialmente, aunque cambiando su relación o la intensidad de su influencia.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Acs, Z. (2006). How is entrepreneurship good for economic growth? Innovations: Technology Governance, Globalization, 1(1), 97–107.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Acs, Z., & Audretsch, D. (2001). The emergence of the entrepreneurial society. Swedish: Foundation for Small Business Review.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Acs, Z., Boardman, C., & McNeely, C. L. (2013). The social value of productive entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 40(3), 785–796.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Acs, Z., Desai, S., & Hessels, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 219–234.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aidis, R., Estrin, S., & Mickiewicz, T. (2010). Institutions, finance and the level of development: The impact on entrepreneurship in transition. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(1), 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economic, 24(3), 223–247.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and Commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1–22.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bandura, A. (1997). La autoeficacia: El ejercicio del control. New York: WH Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Baron, R. (2004). The cognitive perspective: A valuable tool of answering entrepreneurship’s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221–240.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Begley, T., & Boyd, D. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and small businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(1), 79–93.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Berger, P., & Luckman, T. (1984). La construcción social de la realidad. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bojica, A. M., Ruiz, M., & Fuentes, M. M. (2012). La adquisición de conocimiento a través de relaciones interorganizativas y la orientación emprendedora: el papel mediador del capital social de segundo orden. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 15(3), 141–153.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bornstein, D. (1998). Changing the world on a shoestring. Atlantic Monthly, 281(1), 34–38.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bornstein, D. (2004). How to change the world: Social entrepreneurs and the power of new ideas. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bornstein, D., & Davis, S. (2010). Social entrepreneurship. What everyone needs to know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Boschee, J. (1998). Merging mission and money: A board member’s guide to social entrepreneurship, National Center for nonprofit boards. http://www.socialent.org/pdfs/MergingMission.pdf.

  17. Boschee, J., & McClurg, J. (2003). Toward a better understanding of social entrepreneurship: some important distinctions. http://www.se-alliance.org/better_understanding.pdf.

  18. Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(4), 64–77.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bridet, E., Eum, H., & Ryu, J. (2018). Diversity of Social Enterprise Models in South Korea. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-018-9951-8.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Brockhaus, R. H. (1982). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. G. Vesper (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496225.

  21. Cantillon, R. (1755). Essay on the nature of trade in general. London: Henry Higgs.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Chell, E., Spence, L. J., Perrini, F., & Harris, J. D. (2016). Social entreprenurship and business ethics: Does social equal ethical? Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 619–625.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Chen, H. M., Muramoto, K., Yamauchi, F., Fujimoto, K., & Nokihara, K. (1998). Antioxidative properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from peptide fragments found in the digests of a soybean protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(1), 49–53.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Connell, R. W. (1990). An iron man: The body and some contradictions of hegemonic masculinity. In M. Messner & D. Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order (pp. 141–149). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cornelius, N., Todres, M., Janjuha-Jivraj, J., Woods, A., & Wallace, J. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and the social enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 355–370.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1203–1213.

    Google Scholar 

  27. De Castro, J. O., Justo, R., & Olivares, A. M. (2008). La naturaleza del proceso emprendedor en España en el contexto internacional. España: Fundación BBVA.

    Google Scholar 

  28. De la Rosa Acosta, B. (1986). Educación social y profesionalización pedagógica. Cuestiones pedagógicas: Revista de Ciencias de la Educación, 3, 65–72.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Dees, J. G. (1998). Enterprising nonprofits: What do you do when traditional sources of funding fall short? Harvard Business Review, 76, 55–67.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Dees, J. G. (2001). The Meaning of social entrepreneurship. http://community-wealth.org/content/meaning-social-entrepreneurship.

  31. Dees, J. G. (2012). A tale of two cultures: Charity, problem solving, and the future of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 321–334.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Di Domenico, M. L., Haugh, H., & Tracy, P. (2010). Social Bricolage: Theorizing social value creation in social enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 681–703.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Diochon, M., & Ghore, Y. (2016). Contextualizing a social enterprise opportunity process in an emerging market. Social Enterprise Journal, 12(2), 107–130.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Drucker, P. F. (1989). The new realities in government and politics, in Economics and Business, in Society and World View. New York: HarperBusiness.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Eagly, A. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Formichella, M. M. (2004). El concepto de emprendimiento y su relación con la educación, el empleo y el desarrollo local. Argentina: Tres Arroyos.

    Google Scholar 

  37. García, C., Martínez, A., & Fernández, R. (2010). Características del emprendedor influyentes en el proceso de creación empresarial y en el éxito esperado. Revista Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 19(2), 31–48.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Grusec, J. E., & Hastings, P. D. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. New York: Prentice Hall College Div.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Hechavarría, D. M., Ingram, A., Justo, R., & Terjesen, S. (2012). Are women more likely to pursue social and environmental entrepreneurship? In K. D. Hughes & J. E. Jennings (Eds.), Global women’s entrepreneurship research: Diverse settings, questions and approaches (pp. 135–151). Cheltenham/Northampton: Edward Elgar.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Hibbert, S., Hogg, G., & Quinn, T. (2005). Social entrepreneurship: Understanding consumer motives for buying The Big Issue. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4(3), 159–172.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Hindle, K. (2006). A measurement framework for international entrepreneurship policy research: From impossible index to malleable matrix. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 3(2), 139–182.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hockerts, K. (2015). The social entrepreneurial antecedents scale (SEAS): A validation study. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(3), 260–280.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hoogendoorn, B., & Hartog, C. M. (2010). Prevalence and Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship at The Macro-Level Scales report No. H201022. EIM: Zoetermeer.

  45. Hornaday, J. A., & Aboud, J. (1971). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Personnel Psychology, 24(2), 141–153.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Inglehart, R. (1981). Post-materialism in a environment of insecurity. American Political Science Review, 81, 1289–1303.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Inglehart, R. (2000). Globalization and postmodern values. The Washington Quarterly, 23(1), 215–228.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Jiménez, A., Palmero-Cámara, C., González-Santos, M. J., González-Bernal, J., & Jiménez-Eguizábal, J. A. (2015). The impact of educational levels on formal and informal entrepreneurship. Business Research Quarterly, 18, 204–212.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Johnson, S. (2003). Social entrepreneurship literature review. New Academy Review, 2(2), 42–56.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kerlin, J. A. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and learning from the differences. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17, 247–263.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kerlin, J. A. (2010). A comparative analysis of the global emergence of social enterprise. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21, 162–179.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kerlinger, F. N. (2002). Investigación del comportamiento. Mexico City: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kistruck, G. M., & Beamish, P. W. (2010). The interplay of form, structure, and embeddedness in social intrapreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 735–761.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk. Uncertainty and profit. New York: Hougthon Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Leadbeater, C. (1997). The rise of the social entrepreneur. London: Demos.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Levie, J., & Autio, E. (2011). Regulatory burden, rule of law, and entry of strategic entrepreneurs: An international panel study. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1392–1419.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Levie, J., Brooksbank, D., Jones-Evans, D., Harding, R., & Hart, M. (2006). Measuring social entrepreneurship: Lessons from three years of experimentation by the UK Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Team (Interactive Paper). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 26(25), 3. https://digitalknowledge.babson.edu/fer/vol26/iss25/3/.

  61. Light, P. C. (2006). Reshaping social entrepreneurship. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 4(3), 47–51.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Light, I. H., & Rosenstein, C. N. (1995). Race, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship in urban America. New York: Transaction Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). From legitimacy to impact: Moving the field forward by asking how entrepreneurship informs life. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 5(1), 3–9.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 36–44.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Mazzei, M., & Roy, M. J. (2017). From policy to practice: Exploring practitioners’ perspectives on social enterprise policy claims. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 28, 2449–2468.

    Google Scholar 

  66. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Van Nostrand: Princeton.

    Google Scholar 

  67. McClelland, D. C. (1987). Human motivation. Scott Foresman: Glenview.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Meyskens, M., Robb-Post, C., Stamp, J. A., Carsrud, A. L., & Reynolds, P. D. (2010). Social ventures from a resource-based perspective: an exploratory study assessing global Ashoka fellows. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(4), 661–680.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Morris, M. H. (1998). Entrepreneurial intensity: Sustainable advantages for individuals, organizations and societies, westport. CT: Quorum.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Mort, G., Weerawardena, J., & Carnegie, K. (2003). Social entrepreneurship: Towards conceptualization. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(1), 76–88.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Mueller, S. L., & Thomas, A. S. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1), 51–75.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Murphy, P. J., & Coombes, S. M. (2009). A model of social entrepreneurial discovery. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(3), 325–336.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Neck, H., Brush, C., & Allen, E. (2009). The landscape of social entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 52(1), 13–19.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Nicolás, C., & Rubio, A. (2016). Social enterprise: Gender gap and economic development. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 25, 56–62.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Nicolás, C., Rubio, A., & Fernández-Laviada, A. (2018). Cognitive determinants of social entrepreneurship: Variations according to the degree of economic development. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 9(2), 154–168.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Nissan, E., Castaño, M. S., & Carrasco, I. (2012). Drivers of non-profit activity: A cross-country analysis. Small Business Economic, 38, 303–320.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Oetting, E. R., & Donnermeyer, J. F. (1998). Primary socialization theory: The etiology of drug use and deviance. I. Substance Use and Misuse, 33(4), 995–1026.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Parker, S. C. (2009). The economics of entrepreneurship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Peredo, A. M., & Chrisman, J. J. (2006). Toward a theory of community-based enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 309–328.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Peredo, A. M., & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of World Business, 41, 56–65.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Peterman, N. E., & Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise education: Influencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(2), 129–144.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Piotrowski, S. J., & Van Ryzing, G. G. (2007). Citizen attitudes toward transparency in local government. American Review of Public Administration, 37(3), 306–323.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Pless, N. M. (2012). Social entrepreneurship in theory and practice—An introduction. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 317–320.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Putnam, R. P. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Rey-Martí, A., Ribeiro-Soriano, D., & Palacios-Marqués, D. (2016). A bibliometric analysis of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1651–1655.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Reynolds, P. D., Bosma, N., Autio, E., Hunt, S., De Bono, N., Servais, I., et al. (2005). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data collection design and implementation 1998-2003. Small Business Economic, 24(3), 443–456.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Ripollés, M., & Blesa, A. (2006). Redes personales del empresario y orientación emprendedora en las nuevas empresas. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de Empresas, 26, 73–94.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Rivera-Santos, M., Holt, D., Littlewood, D., & Kolk, A. (2015). Social entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa. The Academy of Management Perspective, 29(1), 72–91.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335–351.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Sassmannshausen, S. P., & Volkmann, C. (2018). The scientometrics of social entrepreneurship and its establishment as an academic field. Journal of Small Business Management, 56(2), 251–273.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Say, J. B. (1803). Tratado de Política Económica. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Schumpeter, J. (1934). Theory of economic development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2007). Profitable business models and market creation in the context of deep poverty: A strategic view. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(4), 49–63.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Sharma, P., & Chrisman, J. J. (1999). Toward a reconciliation of the definitional issues in the field of corporate entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24, 11–27.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Shaw, E., & Carter, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship. Theoretical antecedents and empirical analysis of entrepreneurial processes and outcomes. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(3), 418–434.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(2), 161–194.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Singer, S., Amorós, J. E., & Moska, D. (2015). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2014, executive report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. http://www.gemconsortium.org/.

  99. Solomon, G. T., & Winslow, E. K. (1988). Toward a descriptive profile of the entrepreneur. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 22(3), 162–171.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Starr, J. A., & Fondas, N. (1992). A model of entrepreneurial socialization and organization formation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(1), 67–76.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Stevenson, H. H. (2000). Why the entrepreneurship has won! Coleman White Paper. http://www.unm.edu/~asalazar/Kauffman/Entrep_research/e_won.pdf.

  102. Stevenson, H. H., Roberts, M. J., & Grous-beck, H. I. (1989). New business ventures and the entrepreneur. IL: Irwin.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Terjesen, S., Bosma, N. S., & Stam, E. (2016). Advancing public policy for high growth, female, and social entrepreneurs. Public Administration Review, 76(2), 230–239.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Thompson, J. L., Alvy, G., & Lees, A. (2000). Social entrepreneurship—A new look at the people and the potential. Management Decision, 38(5), 328–338.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Timmons, J. A. (1978). Characteristics and role demands of entrepreneurship. American Journal of Small Business, 3(1), 5–17.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Van Ryzin, G. G., Grossman, S., DiPadova-Stocks, L., & Bergrud, E. (2009). Portrait of the social entrepreneur: Statistical evidence from a US panel. International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 20, 129–140.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 21–35.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Wennekers, S., Van Wennekers, A., Thurik, R., & Reynolds, P. (2005). Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 293–309.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Zander, I. (2004). El espíritu emprendedor en el ámbito geográfico. Fundamentos conceptuales e implicaciones para la formación de nuevos clusters. Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, 20, 9–34.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Zebeda, S. (2012). Characteristics of the social entrepreneur: A neoclassical perspective. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Catalina Nicolás Martínez.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nicolás Martínez, C., Rubio Bañón, A. & Fernández Laviada, A. Social Entrepreneur: Same or Different from the Rest?. Voluntas 30, 443–459 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-018-00053-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Social entrepreneur
  • Personality
  • Individual variables
  • Subjective variables