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Third Sector Organizations and Migration: A Systematic Literature Review on the Contribution of Third Sector Organizations in View of Flight, Migration and Refugee Crises

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Abstract

Long before the current refugee crisis, third sector organizations (TSOs) have played a pivotal role in dealing with the multifaceted challenge of migration. Researchers have analyzed this role in many ways. What is missing, however, is a comprehensive overview of how the third sector contributes to dealing with migration. To close this gap, we conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) that maps the scholarly debate on TSOs and migration. Our SLR identifies four domains of TSO migration engagement: first, the direct provision of basic services and social welfare; second, migrant-oriented capacity development; third, system-oriented advocacy; and fourth, complementary research activities. We propose a conceptual framework that highlights the contribution of TSOs with regard to individual-oriented and system-oriented services that are necessary for a successful integration of migrants. A key implication of our derived framework is to understand migration as a holistic challenge that requires contributions by different actors on different levels, thus highlighting the need for coordination and communication between the TSOs, the state and other stakeholders.

Résumé

Les organismes du tiers secteur (OTS) jouent un rôle essentiel dans la résolution des problèmes complexes de la migration, et ce, depuis longtemps, bien avant la crise des réfugiés. Les chercheurs ont analysé ce rôle de plusieurs façons, mais nul n’a cependant élaboré un aperçu complet de la manière dont le tiers secteur contribue à la gestion de la migration. Pour combler cette brèche, nous avons réalisé une revue systématique de la littérature pour cartographier le débat académique sur les OTS et la migration. Notre revue identifie quatre domaines d’engagement des OTS : la prestation directe de services de base et de protection sociale, le développement des capacités des migrants; la défense du système; et des activités de recherche complémentaires. Nous proposons un cadre conceptuel permettant de mettre les contributions des OTS en valeur relativement aux services axés sur les personnes et le système requis pour une intégration réussie des migrants. Une des implications clés de notre cadre de travail dérivé est la capacité de traiter la migration à titre de défi holistique auquel différents intervenants de niveaux variés doivent contribuer, exacerbant ainsi le besoin de coordonner les activités des OTS, de l’État et d’autres parties prenantes, ainsi que l’importance des communications entre ces derniers.

Zusammenfassung

Schon lange vor der aktuellen Flüchtlingskrise spielten Organisationen des Dritten Sektors eine wichtige Rolle im Umgang mit den vielseitigen Problemen der Migration. Forscher haben diese Rolle auf viele Art und Weise untersucht. Was allerdings fehlt, ist ein umfangreicher Überblick darüber, wie der Dritte Sektor einen Beitrag zum Umgang mit der Migration leistet. Um diese Lücke zu schließen, führen wir eine systematische Literaturrecherche durch, die die wissenschaftliche Debatte zum Thema Organisationen des Dritten Sektors und Migration ausarbeitet. Unsere Recherche stellt vier Migrationsbereiche heraus, in denen sich die Dritter-Sektor-Organisationen engagieren: erstens die unmittelbar Bereitstellung grundlegender Dienst- und Sozialleistungen, zweitens die migrantenorientierte Kapazitätsentwicklung, drittens die systemorientierte Interessenvertretung und viertens ergänzende Forschungstätigkeiten. Wir schlagen ein konzeptuelles Rahmenwerk vor, das den Beitrag der Organisationen des Dritten Sektors mit Hinblick auf personenorientierten und systemorientierten Dienstleistungen hervorhebt, die für eine erfolgreiche Integration von Migranten erforderlich sind. Eine wichtige Implikation unseres abgeleiteten Rahmenwerks ist das Verständnis der Migration als ein ganzheitliches Problem, das Beiträge von verschiedenen Akteuren auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen erfordert und so den Bedarf an der Zusammenarbeit und Kommunikation zwischen den Organisationen des Dritten Sektors, dem Staat und anderen Stakeholdern hervorhebt.

Resumen

Mucho antes de la actual crisis de refugiados, las organizaciones del sector terciario (TSO, por sus siglas en inglés) han desempeñado un papel esencial en el tratamiento del desafío multifacetas de la emigración. Los investigadores han analizado este papel de muchas formas. Sin embargo, lo que falta es una descripción general integral de cómo el sector terciario contribuye a tratar la emigración. Para cerrar esta brecha, realizamos una Revisión Sistemática del Material Publicado (SRL, por sus siglas en inglés) que cartografía el debate erudito sobre las TSO y la emigración. Nuestra SRL identifica cuatro campos del compromiso de las TSO con la emigración: en primer lugar, la provisión directa de servicios básicos y bienestar social; en segundo lugar, el desarrollo de capacidad orientado a los emigrantes; en tercer lugar, la defensa orientada al sistema; y en cuarto lugar, las actividades de investigación complementarias. Proponemos un marco conceptual que destaca la contribución de las TSO con respecto a los servicios orientados al individuo y orientados al sistema que son necesarios para una integración satisfactoria de los emigrantes. Una implicación clave de nuestro marco derivado es comprender la emigración como un desafío holístico que requiere contribuciones por parte de diferentes actores en diferentes niveles, resaltando de este modo la necesidad de coordinación y comunicación entre las TSO, el estado y otras partes interesadas.

Chinese

在当前的难民危机之前,第三部门组织(TSO)在应对移民问题的多方面挑战时发挥了关键作用。研究人员通过许多方法分析了这种作用。然而,缺乏的内容是全面了解第三部门如何帮助处理移民问题。为了弥补这一差距,我们进行系统性文献综述(SLR),其中介绍了关于 TSO 和移民问题的学术争论。我们的 SLR 确定了 TSO 参与移民工作的四个领域:第一,直接提供基本服务和社会福利;第二,是面向移民的能力开发;第三,面向系统的宣传;第四,补充研究活动。我们提出了一个概念框架,突出了 TSO 在面向个人和面向系统的服务方面的贡献,这对于成功融合移民来说是必需的。我们派生框架的一个关键因素是将移民理解为一个需要不同行动者在不同层次上做出贡献的全面挑战,因此强调了 TSO、国家和其他利益相关方之间协调和沟通的必要性。

Arabic

قبل وقت طويل من أزمة اللاجئين الحالية، لعبت منظمات القطاع الثالث ((TSOs دورا” محوريا” في التعامل مع التحدي المتعدد الأوجه للهجرة. قد حلل الباحثون هذا الدور بطرق عديدة. مع ذلك، فإن الذي ينقص هو عرض شامل لكيفية مساهمة القطاع الثالث في التعامل مع الهجرة. لإغلاق هذه الفجوة، نقوم بإجراء مراجعة منهجية للأدب (SLR) الذي يحدد النقاش العلمي حول منظمات القطاع الثالث (TSOs) والهجرة. تحدد مراجعتنا المنهجية للأدب (SLR) أربعة مجالات من منظمات القطاع الثالث ((TSOs للهجرة المشاركة: أولا”، توفير الخدمات الأساسية والرعاية الإجتماعية مباشرة؛ ثانيا”، تنمية القدرات الموجهة نحو المهاجرين؛ ثالثا”، الدعوة الموجهة نحو النظام؛ و رابعا”، أنشطة البحوث التكميلية. نقترح إطار مفاهيمي يسلط الضوء على مساهمة منظمات القطاع الثالث((TSOs فيما يتعلق بالخدمات الموجهة نحو الأفراد والموجهة نحو النظام والتي تعتبر ضرورية لنجاح إدماج المهاجرين. مفتاح تأثير إطار عملنا المستمد هو فهم الهجرة بإعتبارها تحدي شامل يتطلب مساهمات من جهات فاعلة مختلفة على مختلف المستويات، مما يسلط الضوء على الحاجة إلى التنسيق والإتصال بين منظمات القطاع الثالث((TSOs ، الدولة، وأصحاب المصلحة الآخرين.

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Notes

  1. www.ebscohost.com/.

  2. www.scopus.com/.

  3. www.proquest.com/products-services/abi_inform_complete.html.

  4. http://sowiport.gesis.org/.

  5. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ccst20

  6. We would like to thank one of our anonymous reviewers for his or her valuable suggestion to include several additional publications and to incorporate the Journal of Citizenship Studies in our SLR.

  7. “Mixed countries” refer to: USA and Britain (Ellis 2013); Western Europe States (Berry 2012), Australia and New Zealand (Guerin et al. 2006); Spain (Catalonia) and UK (London) (Paniagua and D’Angelo 2016); Bangladesh, Mauritania, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Kuwait, Dominican Republic (Reynolds and Lynch 2014); migrants from different origins who reside in various host countries (Voicu 2014).

  8. One has to note that, especially for Germany, an additional body of literature exists, containing literature on TSOs (e.g., the German Red Cross, Caritas associations, clubs and unions in Germany) and flight and migration, which is published in German in non-peer-reviewed journals and popular science magazines. This literature has not been taken into account.

  9. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender.

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Acknowledgements

We sincerely thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper, which were of great help in revising the manuscript. Our thanks goes to Prof. Dr. Clemens Werkmeister (Professorship Business Administration Wilhelm Löhe University of Applied Sciences) for his valuable remarks on a draft of this paper. Additionally, we thank Dr. Dimitar Zvezdov, Roya Akhavan and Peter Wehnert for their peer feedback.

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Correspondence to Michael Garkisch.

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Michael Garkisch, Jens Heidingsfelder and Markus Beckmann declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Identified relevant publications along the search operations

Search operation

Number of identified new documents

I

89

II

6

III

III-1

8

III-2

IV

13

V

22

Sum

138

Appendix 2: Overview of publications clustered in a priority A–B–C list

Priority A–B–C

Number of documents

A: Relevant literature

101

B: “Nice to read” literature

30

 No third sector context

20

  No migration context

7

 Other (e.g., editorial)

3

C: Irrelevant

7

 Not peer reviewed

2

 No migration and third sector context

5

Initial sum

138

Appendix 3: Process of search operations and affiliated numbers of identified publications

Search No

Results

(after abstract and inclusion-criteria scan and duplicate publications removed)

Initial Search 1

4 Databases: 8 topic related keywords and 15 sector-related keywords = 8 search-strings; 5 Journals: 8 keywords

Initial Search 1 N = 80

4 Databases: 81 publications

5 Journals: 8 publications

Peer Feedback

Search 2 with Organizations

After the peer feedback, we include 5 new sector-related keywords of organisation, like the Red Cross and United Nations

Search 2 N = 6

4 Databases: 3 publications

5 Journals: 3 publications

4 Databases: 5 new topic related keywords and 15 sector-related keywords = 8 search-strings

5 Journals: 5 new topic related keywords and 15 sector related keywords = 8 search-strings

 

Peer Feedback

Search 3

After feedback we added two topic-related keywords:

emigrant; expelled

Search 3 N = 8

4 Databases: 8 publications

5 Journals: 0 publications

Continuation of Initial Search 1

4 Databases: 2 new topic related keywords and 15 sector-related keywords = 2 search-strings

5 Journals: 2 keywords

 

Continuation of Initial Search II

4 Databases: 2 new topic related keywords and 15 sector-related keywords = 2 search-strings

5 Journals: 2 keywords

 

Search 4

After feedback we added two sector-related keywords:

“relief organization” and advocacy

Search 4 N = 13

4 Databases: 13 publications

5 Journals: not relevant

Continuation of Initial Search 1

4 Databases: 2 new topic related keywords and 15 sector-related keywords = 2 search-strings

5 Journals: not relevant, there we only search with topic related search terms

 

Continuation of Initial Search II

Not relevant because we used in Search II only specific organization names

 

Initial Search 1 (89): Search 2 (6); Search 3 (8); Search 4 (13) Result at the end: N = 116

VOLUNTAS Reviewer Feedback

Search 5

After review feedback we included the Journal of Citizenship Studies and selected authors and publications suggested by the reviewers

Search 5 N = 22

Result at the end: N = 138

 

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Garkisch, M., Heidingsfelder, J. & Beckmann, M. Third Sector Organizations and Migration: A Systematic Literature Review on the Contribution of Third Sector Organizations in View of Flight, Migration and Refugee Crises. Voluntas 28, 1839–1880 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-017-9895-4

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