Aid Reduction and Local Civil Society: Causes, Comparisons, and Consequences

Abstract

Questions about aid reduction and its implications are crucial to understanding the future of civil society in many low- and middle-income countries and in post-conflict states. Local civil society in these contexts is often heavily influenced by foreign donors. This article provides an introduction to this theme issue about aid reduction and local civil society. The objective of the introduction and issue articles is to examine the causes of aid reduction and donor withdrawal, the impacts on local civil society organizations (CSOs), and any resulting change in local civil society. We ask: What are the global trends in aid reduction? What impacts does aid reduction have on local CSOs? How do local CSOs respond and adapt? The contributions in this issue demonstrate that aid reduction is indeed global in scale and that impacts and adaptations are often strikingly similar across countries and regions. These similarities form the basis for building new theory but also prompt new questions about the global effects of aid on civil society.

Résumé

Pour dresser un portrait de l’avenir de la société civile des pays à faible et moyen revenus et d’États donnés à la suite d’un conflit, il est essentiel d’évaluer la réduction de l’assistance et ses implications. Dans ces contextes, la société civile est souvent lourdement influencée par des donateurs étrangers. Le présent article introduit ce numéro axé sur la réduction de l’assistance et la société civile locale. L’objectif de l’introduction et des articles du présent numéro est d’étudier les causes de la réduction de l’assistance et du retrait des donateurs, les incidences de ces derniers sur les organisations civiles locales et les changements qui en découlent dans la société civile. Nous posons les questions suivantes: Quelles sont les tendances de réduction de l’assistance dans le monde? Quelles répercussions la réduction de l’assistance a-t-elle sur les organisations civiles locales? Comment les organisations civiles locales réagissent et s’adaptent-elles? Les contributions du présent numéro démontrent que la réduction de l’assistance sociale est effectivement d’échelle mondiale et que ses incidences, ainsi que les adaptations qui en découlent sont souvent étonnamment semblables d’un pays à l’autre et d’une région à l’autre. Ces similitudes forment la pierre angulaire d’une nouvelle théorie et soulèvent de nombreuses questions sur les effets mondiaux de l’assistance sur la société civile.

Zusammenfassung

Fragen hinsichtlich der Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen und deren Folgen sind für das Verständnis der Zukunft der Bürgergesellschaft in vielen Ländern mit niedrigem und mittlerem Einkommen sowie in Post-Konflikt-Ländern wichtig. Die lokale Bürgergesellschaft in diesen Kontexten wird häufig von ausländischen Spendern beeinflusst. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist eine Einführung zu dem Thema dieser Ausgabe - die Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen und die lokale Bürgergesellschaft. Ziel der Einführung und der Artikel in dieser Ausgabe ist es, die Ursachen für eine Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen und die Distanzierung seitens der Spender, die Auswirkungen auf lokale Bürgergesellschaftsorganisationen und die daraus folgenden etwaigen Veränderungen in der lokalen Bürgergesellschaft zu untersuchen. Man geht auf folgende Fragen ein: Wie sehen die globalen Trends mit Hinblick auf die Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen aus? Welche Auswirkungen hat die Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen auf lokale Bürgergesellschaftsorganisationen? Wie reagieren lokale Bürgergesellschaftsorganisationen darauf und wie passen sie sich an? Die Beiträge in dieser Ausgabe zeigen, dass die Reduzierung von Hilfeleistungen in der Tat ein globales Ausmaß annimmt und dass die Auswirkungen in den Ländern und Regionen und ihre Anpassung oftmals auffallend ähnlich sind. Diese Ähnlichkeiten bilden die Basis für die Entwicklung einer neuen Theorie, führen jedoch auch zu neuen Fragen über die globalen Auswirkungen von Hilfeleistungen auf die Bürgergesellschaft.

Resumen

Las preguntas sobre la reducción de la ayuda y sus implicaciones son cruciales para comprender el futuro de la sociedad civil en muchos países con ingresos bajos y medios y en estados posconflicto. La sociedad civil local en estos contextos se ve muy influenciada a menudo por los donantes extranjeros. El presente artículo proporciona una introducción a este problema sobre la reducción de la ayuda y la sociedad civil local. El objetivo de la introducción y de los artículos sobre el problema es examinar las causas de la reducción de la ayuda y la retirada de donantes, los impactos sobre las organizaciones de la sociedad civil local (CSO, por sus siglas en inglés) y cualquier cambio resultante en la sociedad civil local. Preguntamos: ¿Cuáles son las tendencias mundiales en la reducción de la ayuda? ¿Qué impactos tiene la reducción de la ayuda en las CSO locales? ¿Cómo responden y se adaptan las CSO locales? Las contribuciones sobre esta cuestión demuestran que la reducción de la ayuda realmente es a escala mundial y que los impactos y las adaptaciones a menudo son sorprendentemente similares en todos los países y regiones. Estas semejanzas forman la base para la creación de nuevas teorías y también plantean nuevas preguntas sobre los efectos mundiales de la ayuda en la sociedad civil.

Chinese

在了解众多中低收入国家与经历冲突之后的国家里的民间社团(civil society)的未来时,对关于援助削减(aid reduction)及其潜在影响等问题的研究至关重要。在这些国家里,本地民间社团往往深受国外捐献者的影响。本文针对援助削减与本地民间社团等主题事宜进行了介绍。本介绍性主题文章旨在探究援助削减与捐献者撤出(donor withdrawal)的原因、援助削减与捐献者撤出对本地民间社团组织(civil society organizations (CSOs))的影响及其所引起的本地民间社团的变化。我们提出以下问题:援助削减的全球潮流是什么?援助削减对本地民间社团组织造成了什么影响?本地民间社团组织是如何应对与自我调整的?对于本事业的捐献显示,援助削减确实是一种全球范围的现象,在不同国家与地区,各团体所采取的调整适应措施往往具有惊人的相似之处。这些相似之处为构建新理论奠定了基础,但是同时也提出了关于民间社团援助的全球效应的新问题。

Japanese

対外援助とその含意についての疑問は、中間もしくは低所得の国々および紛争以後の国々における市民社会の将来を理解するのに重要である。この背景となる地域の市民社会は、外国の寄付に深く影響されている。本論文では、地域市民社会と対外援助においてこのテーマの問題の序論を提示する。序論の目的と論点では、地域市民社会における対外援助の原因、資金提供者の退会、地域市民社会組織(CSO)の影響、結果として生じる変化を調査する。世界的な対外援助とは何か。地域のCSOにおいて対外援助はどのような影響をあるか。地域のCSOはどのように応えて適用させるか。これらの問題の貢献度は、対外援助は現実に世界規模で影響と適用は国々と地域に際立って類似している。この類似性は新しい理論を構築する基礎を形成するだけでなく、市民社会の救助についての新しい疑問を構築する。

Arabic

الدخل وفي حالات ما بعد الصراع. غالبا” ما يتأثر المجتمع المدني المحلي في هذه السياقات بشكل كبير عن طريق الجهات المانحة الأجنبية. تقدم هذه المقالة مقدمة لهذه الفكرة الرئيسية للمشكلة حول إنخفاض المساعدات والمجتمع المدني المحلي. الهدف من المقدمة وإصدار المقالات هو دراسة أسباب إنخفاض المساعدات وانسحاب المانحين، الآثار المترتبة على منظمات المجتمع المدني المحلية (CSOs)، وأي تغيير ناتج في المجتمع المدني المحلي. نحن نسأل: ما هي الإتجاهات العالمية في مجال الحد من المساعدات؟ ما آثار إنخفاض المساعدات على منظمات المجتمع المدني (CSOs) المحلية؟ كيف تستجيب منظمات المجتمع المدني (CSOs) المحلية وتتكيف؟ المساهمات في هذه المسألة تدل على أن إنخفاض المساعدات عالمي بالفعل في النطاق والتكيف وغالبا” ما تكون مماثلة لافتة للنظرفي مختلف البلدان والمناطق. هذا الشبه يشكل الأساس لبناء نظرية جديدة ولكن أيضا أسئلة جديدة سريعة حول الآثار العالمية للمعونة على المجتمع المدني.

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Correspondence to Christopher L. Pallas.

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Christopher L. Pallas: Authorship is equally shared.

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Appe, S., Pallas, C.L. Aid Reduction and Local Civil Society: Causes, Comparisons, and Consequences. Voluntas 29, 245–255 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-017-9846-0

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Keywords

  • Foreign aid
  • Donor exit
  • Official development assistance (ODA)
  • Civil society organizations (CSOs)