Retaining Critical Human Capital: Volunteer Firefighters in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Original Paper

Abstract

Effective delivery of services for the public good involves a multiplicity of organizations and actors, including those from the public, nonprofit, and private sectors. In some cases, service delivery is accomplished using programs that directly engage volunteers, including key public services like community-based and nonprofit volunteer fire departments. Volunteers in fire departments—often highly engaged volunteers with specialized training—provide vital services for a substantial portion of the United States, allowing local governments to realize considerable cost savings. Thus, issues of volunteer retention are a critical challenge for fire departments. Existing research has addressed issues of retention in a variety of settings; we argue that the challenging and particular context of fire departments is worthy of focused research. This article is an exploratory study of the predictors of voluntary firefighter retention in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. We use data from a web-based survey of volunteer firefighters to examine the factors that influence volunteer retention, focusing specifically on volunteer management practices and broader job-related concepts. Results indicate that volunteer training, performance management, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment influence both short- and mid-term intent to remain, indicating that management practices and programs, as well as other contextual factors that shape satisfaction and commitment, are important in retaining volunteers.

Keywords

Volunteer retention Volunteer management Fire departments Public safety 

Résumé

La prestation efficace de services pour le bien public implique une multitude d’organismes et d’acteurs, dont ceux des secteurs publics, sans but lucratif et privés. Dans certains cas, cette prestation est réalisée à l’aide de programmes qui mobilisent directement des bénévoles, dont des services publics clés comme des services d’incendie communautaires et bénévoles sans but lucratif. Les bénévoles des services d’incendie, qui sont souvent des bénévoles engagés dotés d’une formation spécialisée, offrent des services essentiels à une importante part de la population américaine, permettant ainsi aux gouvernements d’économiser de grandes sommes. La question de la fidélisation des bénévoles représente donc un enjeu d’envergure pour les services d’incendie. Les recherches existantes ont traité de la fidélisation dans divers contextes. Nous avançons que le contexte complexe et particulier des services d’incendie justifie une recherche soignée. Le présent article se veut une étude exploratoire des indicateurs de prévision de la fidélisation des pompiers bénévoles de l’État de Pennsylvanie. Nous nous sommes servis de données tirées d’une enquête menée en ligne auprès de pompiers pour étudier les facteurs qui influencent la fidélisation des bénévoles, en nous concentrant particulièrement sur les pratiques de gestion de ces derniers et des concepts professionnels plus vastes connexes. Les résultats démontrent que la formation des bénévoles, la gestion du rendement, la satisfaction au travail et l’engagement organisationnel influencent l’intention à court et à long termes de rester, démontrant que les pratiques et programmes de gestion, en plus d’autres facteurs contextuels donnant forme à la satisfaction et à l’engagement, sont essentiels à la fidélisation des bénévoles.

Zusammenfassung

Die effektive Bereitstellung von Dienstleistungen für das öffentliche Wohl umfasst eine Vielzahl von Organisationen und Akteuren, einschließlich derer aus öffentlichen, gemeinnützigen und privaten Sektoren. In einigen Fällen erfolgt die Dienstleistungsbereitstellung über Programme, die sich direkt auf Ehrenamtliche stützen; dazu zählen wichtige öffentliche Dienstleistungen wie die gemeindebasierte und gemeinnützige freiwillige Feuerwehr. Ehrenamtliche Mitarbeiter der freiwilligen Feuerwehr - häufig höchst engagierte Ehrenamtliche mit spezieller Ausbildung - stellen für einen Großteil der USA äußerst wichtige Dienstleistungen bereit, was den lokalen Regierungen zu erheblichen Einsparungen verhilft. Somit ist das Thema der Bindung ehrenamtlicher Mitarbeiter für die Feuerwehr von großer Bedeutung. Forschungen haben das Thema der Bindung in einer Reihe von Kontexten betrachtet. Wir meinen, dass der schwierige und spezielle Kontext der Feuerwehr eine intensive Erforschung wert ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag ist eine explorative Studie der Prädiktoren für die Bindung von ehrenamtlichen Feuerwehrleuten im U.S.-Bundesstaat Pennsylvania. Wir verwenden Daten aus einer Internet-Befragung von freiwilligen Feuerwehrleuten,um die Faktoren zu untersuchen, die sich auf die Bindung der ehrenamtlichen Mitarbeiter auswirken, wobei wir uns insbesondere auf die Praktiken des Managments der Freiwilligenarbeit und auf weiterreichende arbeitsbezogene Konzepte konzentrieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Ausbildung der Ehrenamtlichen, das Leistungsmanagement, die Arbeitszufriedenheit und die organisatorische Verpflichtung die kurzfristige und mittelfristige Absicht, in der Organisation zu bleiben, beeinflussen, was darauf hinweist, dass die Managementpraktiken und -programme sowie andere kontextabhängige Faktoren, die sich auf die Zufriedenheit und das Engagement auswirken, für die Bindung ehrenamtlicher Mitarbeiter wichtig sind.

Resumen

La entrega efectiva de servicios para el bien público implica una multiplicidad de organizaciones y actores, incluidos aquellos de los sectores público, sin ánimo de lucro y privado. En algunos casos, la entrega de servicios se realiza utilizando programas que implican directamente a voluntarios, incluidos servicios públicos claves como los departamentos contra incendios voluntarios sin ánimo de lucro y basados en la comunidad. Los voluntarios en los departamentos contra incendios - a menudo voluntarios sumamente implicados con formación especializada - proporcionan servicios vitales para una parte sustancial de los Estados Unidos, permitiendo que los gobiernos locales logren considerables ahorros de costes. De este modo, los temas de retención de voluntarios son un desafío crítico para los departamentos contra incendios. La investigación existente ha abordado los temas de retención en una variedad de escenarios; argumentamos que el contexto específico y exigente de los departamentos contra incendios merece una investigación focalizada. El presente artículo es un estudio exploratorio de los predictores de la retención de bomberos voluntarios en el Estado de Pennsylvania. Utilizamos datos de una encuesta online de bomberos voluntarios para examinar los factores que influyen en la retención de voluntarios, centrándonos específicamente en las prácticas de gestión de voluntarios y conceptos más amplios relacionados con el trabajo. Los resultados indican que la formación de voluntarios, la gestión del rendimiento, la satisfacción en el trabajo, y el compromiso organizacional influyen en la intención de permanecer tanto a corto como a medio plazo, lo que indica que las prácticas y los programas de gestión, así como otros factores contextuales que dan forma a la satisfacción y al compromiso, son importantes para la retención de voluntarios.

摘要

为公益事业高效交付服务涉及组织和参与者的多样性,包括来自公共、非盈利和私人领域的人员。在一些情况下,使用直接涉及志愿者的计划实现服务交付,包括关键公共服务,如基于社区和非盈利志愿者的消防部门。消防部门的志愿者 - 通常是经过专门培训的高度参与志愿者 - 为美国部门的持续运行提供关键服务,让本地政府能够实现可观的费用降低。由此,志愿者保留问题是消防部门面临的关键挑战。现有研究涉及各种环境中的保留问题;我们认为,消防部门充满挑战的特定背景值得专门的研究。本文是宾夕法尼亚联邦志愿消防员保留预测因素的探索性研究。我们使用基于web的志愿消防员调查数据,检查影响志愿者保留的因素,特别专注于志愿者管理实践和更加广泛的工作相关概念。结果表明,志愿者培训、绩效管理、工作满意度和组织承诺都会影响短期和长期保留意愿,表明管理实践和计划,以及塑造满意度和承诺的其他上下文因素对保留志愿者非常重要。

要約

公益サービスの効果的な提供には、民間部門、公共機関、非営利団体には様々な参加者と組織が含まれている。いくつかのケースではサービス提供に直接コミュニティ・ベースおよび非営利ボランティアの消防署のような主要な公共サービスが含まれている。専門研修に従事する消防署のボランティアは、かなりのコスト削減を実現するために地方自治体を許可して、アメリカ合衆国のかなりの部分に重要なサービスを提供する。したがって、ボランティア保持の問題は消防署には重要な課題である。既存の研究では様々な設定の保存問題に対処する。消防署における特殊な背景と問題点は研究の価値があると主張する。本論文ではペンシルバニアのボランティア消防士の保有期間の予測因子の探索的研究を行う。ボランティア消防士のウェブベースの調査データを使用して、ボランティアの保持に影響を与える要因を特に焦点を当てて、ボランティアの経営慣行およびより広範な業務に関連する概念を特に調査する。結果から、ボランティア養成、パフォーマンス管理、職務に対する満足度、組織の業務は、経営プログラム、満足度、業務の形態における変動要因同様に、短期的および中期的意図の両方に影響を与えて、ボランティア保持に重要であることを示している。

ملخص

التقديم الفعال للخدمات من أجل الصالح العام ينطوي على تعدد المنظمات والجهات الفاعلة، بما في ذلك القطاعات العامة والغير ربحية، والقطاعات الخاصة. في بعض الحالات، يتم تقديم الخدمات بإستخدام البرامج التي تشرك مباشرة المتطوعين، بما في ذلك الخدمات العامة الأساسية مثل الإدارات المجتمعية و متطوعين إدارة مكافحة الحرائق الغير ربحية. المتطوعين في إدارات مكافحة الحرائق - غالبا” ما يشاركوا بالمتطوعين مع التدريب المتخصص – تقديم الخدمات الحيوية لجزء كبير من الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، تسمح للحكومات المحلية بتحقيق توفيرات كبيرة في التكاليف. هكذا، مشاكل الإحتفاظ بالمتطوعين تشكل تحديا” حاسما” لإدارات مكافحة الحرائق. فقد تناولت البحوث القائمة مشاكل الإحتفاظ في مجموعة متنوعة من الإعدادات. فإننا نقول إن سياق التحدي والمحدد في إدارات مكافحة الحرائق يستحق تركيز البحوث. هذا المقال هو دراسة إستكشافية للتنبؤ بالإحتفاظ برجال الإطفاء المتطوعين في رابطة ولاية بنسلفانيا. نحن نستخدم بيانات من إستطلاع على شبكة الإنترنت من رجال الاطفاء المتطوعين لدراسة العوامل التي تؤثر على الإحتفاظ بالمتطوعين، مع التركيز بشكل خاص على ممارسات إدارة المتطوعين والمفاهيم ذات الصلة بعمل أوسع. تشير النتائج إلى أن تدريب المتطوعين، وإدارة الأداء، والرضا الوظيفي، وتأثير الإلتزام التنظيمي في الأمدين القصير و نية منتصف المدة و للبقاء، مشيرا” إلى أن الممارسات الإدارية والبرامج، فضلا” عن العوامل السياقية الأخرى التي تشكل الرضا والإلتزام، مهمين في الحفاظ على المتطوعين.

References

  1. Alford, J. (2002). Why do public-sector clients coproduce?: Toward a contingency theory. Administration & Society, 34(1), 32–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, R., & Entwistle, T. (2010). Does cross-sectoral partnership deliver? An empirical exploration of public service effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(3), 679–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin, M. (2003). The changing relationship between nonprofit organizations and public social service agencies in the era of welfare reform. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 32(1), 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bang, H., Ross, S., & Reio, T. G. (2013). From motivation to organizational commitment of volunteers in non-profit sport organizations: The role of job satisfaction. Journal of Management Development, 32(1), 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baxter-Tomkins, A., & Wallace, M. (2009). Recruitment and retention of volunteers in emergency services. Australian Journal on Volunteering, 14(5), 39–49.Google Scholar
  6. Boezeman, E., & Ellemers, N. (2008). Pride and respect in volunteers’ organizational commitment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boivard, T. (2007). Beyond engagement and participation: User and community coproduction of public services. Public Administration Review, 67(5), 846–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brant, R. (1990). Assessing proportionality in the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Biometrics, 46(4), 1171–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brudney, J. L. (1990). Fostering volunteer programs in the public sector: Planning, initiating, and managing voluntary activities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Brudney, J. L., & Meijs, L. (2009a). It ain’t natural: Toward a new (natural) resource conceptualization for volunteer management. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 564–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brudney, J. L., & Meijs, L. (2009b). It ain’t natural: Toward a new (natural) resource conceptualization for volunteer management. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 564–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brudney, J. L., & Meijs, L. (2014). Models of volunteer management: Professional volunteer program management in social work. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 38(3), 297–309.Google Scholar
  13. Bussell, H., & Forbes, D. (2002). Understanding the volunteer market: The what, where, who and why of volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(3), 44–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chum, A., Mook, L., Handy, F., Schugurensky, D., & Quarter, J. (2013). Degree and direction of paid employee/volunteer interchange in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23(4), 409–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clary, G. E., & Snyder, M. (1999). The motivations to volunteer: Theoretical and practical considerations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(5), 156–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Ridge, R. (1992). Volunteers’ motivations: A functional strategy for the recruitment, placement, and retention of volunteers. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 2(4), 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., et al. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1516–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Stukas, A. A. (1996). Volunteers’ motivations: Findings from a national survey. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25(4), 485–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Claxton-Oldfield, S., & Jones, R. (2013). Holding on to what you have got: Keeping hospice palliative care volunteers volunteering. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 30(5), 467–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clerkin, R. M., Paynter, S. R., & Taylor, J. K. (2009). Public service motivation in undergraduate giving and volunteering decisions. The American Review of Public Administration, 39(6), 675–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Corporation for National and Community Service [CNCS] (2007). Issue brief: Volunteer retention. Washington, DC: Corporation for National and Community Service. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/pdf/VIA/VIA_brief_retention.pdf.
  22. Curran, R., Taheri, B., MacIntosh, R., & O’Gorman, K. (2016). Nonprofit brand heritage: Its ability to influence volunteer retention, engagement, and satisfaction. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(6), 1234–1257.Google Scholar
  23. Cuskelly, G., & Boag, A. (2001). Organisational commitment as a predictor of committee member turnover among volunteers sport administrators: Results of a time-lagged study. Sport Management Review, 4(1), 65–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cuskelly, G., Taylor, T., Hoye, R., & Darcy, S. (2006). Volunteer management practices and volunteer retention: A human resource management approach. Sport Management Review, 9(2), 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dailey, R. (1986). Understanding organizational commitment for volunteers: Empirical and managerial implications. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 15(1), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Danson, M. (2003). Review of research and evidence on volunteering, volunteer development. Scotland: Stirling.Google Scholar
  27. DeHart-Davis, L., & Pandey, S. K. (2005). Red tape and public employees: Does perceived rule dysfunction alienate managers? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(1), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dess, G. G., & Shaw, J. D. (2001). Voluntary turnover, social capital, and organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 26(3), 446–456.Google Scholar
  29. Doherty, A., & Hoye, R. (2011). Role ambiguity and volunteer board member performance in nonprofit sport organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 22(1), 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duncombe, W. D., & Brudney, J. (1995). The optimal mix of volunteer and paid staff in local governments: An application to municipal fire departments. Public Finance Quarterly, 23(3), 356–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellis, S. J. (2010). From the top down: The executive role in successful volunteer involvement (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Energize.Google Scholar
  32. Finkelstein, M. (2008). Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer action: A functional approach. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(1), 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Finkelstein, M. A., Penner, L. A., & Brannick, M. T. (2005). Motive, role identity, and prosocial personality as predictors of volunteer activity. Social Behavior and Personality, 33, 403–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gage, R. L., & Thapa, B. (2012). Volunteer motivations and constraints among college students: Analysis of the Volunteer Function Inventory and Leisure Constraints Models. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(3), 405–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Galindo-Kuhn, R., & Guzley, R. M. (2002). The volunteer satisfaction index. Journal of Social Service Research, 28(1), 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garner, J. T., & Garner, L. T. (2011). Volunteering an opinion: Organizational voice and Volunteer retention in Nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(5), 813–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaston, K., & Alexander, J. A. (2001). Effective organisation and management of public sector volunteer workers: Police special constables. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 14(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gazely, B. (2013). Predicting a volunteer’s future intentions in professional associations: A test of the Penner model. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(6), 1245–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader–member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 25, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grossman, J.B., & Furano, K. (2002) Making the most of volunteers. Public/Private Ventures. Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~jgrossma/reports/making%20most%20volunteer.pdf.
  41. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  42. Hager, M. A., & Brudney, J. L. (2004). Volunteer management practices and retention of volunteers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Hager, M. A., & Brudney, J. L. (2008). Management capacity and retention of volunteers. In M. Liao-Troth (Ed.), Challenges in volunteer management. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Handy, F., Mook, L., & Quarter, J. (2008). The interchangeability of paid staff and volunteers in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 37(1), 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haski-Leventhal, D., & McLeigh, J. D. (2009). Firefighters volunteering beyond their duty: An essential asset in rural communities. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 4(2), 80–92.Google Scholar
  46. Henderson, A. C., & Charbonneau, E. (2016). Examining conceptualizations of emergency response in public administration research. Public Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 559–588.Google Scholar
  47. Houston, D. (2006). “Walking the walk” of public service motivation: Public employees and charitable gifts of time, blood, and money. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(1), 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huselid, M. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hustinx, L., Cnaan, R. A., & Handy, F. (2010). Navigating theories of volunteering: A hybrid map for a complex phenomenon. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 40, 410–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jamison, I. B. (2003). Turnover and retention among volunteers in human service agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 23(2), 114–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kellough, J. E., & Osuna, W. (1995). Cross-agency comparisons of quit rates in the federal service. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 15, 58–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kennedy, P. (2008). A guide to econometrics (6th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Lee, S., & Olshfski, D. (2002). Employee commitment and firefighters: It’s my job. Public Administration Review, 62(s1), 108–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leonard, H. B., & Howitt, A. M. (2007). High performance in emergency preparedness and response: Disaster type differences. Taubman Center Policy Briefs. PB-2007-3. Retrieved from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/taubman/peril_new.pdf.
  55. Leonard, H. B., & Howitt, A. M. (2009). Managing crises: Responses to large-scale emergencies. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  56. Locke, M., Ellis, A., & Smith, J. D. (2003). Hold on to what you’ve got: The volunteer retention literature. Voluntary Action, 5(3), 81–99.Google Scholar
  57. Macduff, N., Netting, F. E., & O’Connor, M. K. (2009). Multiple ways of coordinating volunteers with differing styles of service. Journal of Community Practice, 17, 400–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McBride, A., & Lee, Y. (2012). Institutional predictors of volunteer retention: The case of Americorps national service. Administration & Society, 44(3), 343–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meijs, L., & Ten Hoorn, E. M. (2008). No ‘one best’ volunteer management and organizing. In M. Liao-Troth (Ed.), Challenges in volunteer management. Charlotte, North Carolina: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. Mesch, D. J., Rooney, P. M., Steinberg, K. W., & Denton, B. (2006). The effects of race, gender, and marital status on giving and volunteering in Indiana. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(4), 565–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2008). The ties that bind: Social networks, person-organization fit and turnover intention. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 205–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. National Fire Protection Association (2016). U.S. Fire Department Profile2014. Retrieved from http://www.nfpa.org/news-and-research/fire-statistics-and-reports/fire-statistics/the-fire-service/administration/us-fire-department-profile.
  64. Nelson, H., Pratt, C., Carpenter, C., & Walter, K. (1995). Factors affecting volunteer long-term care ombudsman organizational commitment and burnout. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 24(3), 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Netting, F. E., Nelson, H. W., Borders, K., & Huber, R. (2004). Volunteer and paid staff relationships. Administration in Social Work, 28, 69–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paarlberg, L., & Gen, S. S. (2009). The determinants of private funding of public services: The Case of K-12 education in the Bay Area. The American Review of Public Administration., 39(4), 391–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paik, A., & Navarre-Jackson, L. (2011). Social networks, recruitment, and volunteering: Are social capital effects conditional on recruitment? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40, 476–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pearce, J. (1993). Volunteers. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Penner, L. A. (2002). Dispositional and organizational influences on sustained volunteerism: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 447–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perkins, K. (1989). Volunteer firefighters in the United States: A descriptive study. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 18(3), 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Perkins, K. (1990). Volunteer fire and rescue corporations: Structure, process, and survival. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 19(4), 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  73. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Quarantelli, E. L. (2000). Emergencies, disaster and catastrophes are different phenomena. Preliminary paper #304. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center. Retrieved from http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/674.
  75. Rehnborg, S. J. (2009). Strategic volunteer engagement: A guide for nonprofit and public sector leaders. Austin, TX: University of Texas, RGK Center for Philanthropy & Community Service. Retrieved from http://www.volunteeralive.org/docs/Strategic%20Volunteer%20Engagement.pdf.
  76. Rochester, C. (2006). Making sense of volunteering: A literature review. London: Volunteering England.Google Scholar
  77. Saidel, J. (1991). Resource interdependence: The relationship between state agencies and nonprofit organizations. Public Administration Review, 51(6), 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Saksida, T., & Shantz, A. (2014). Active management of volunteers: How training and staff support promote commitment of volunteers. In Academy Of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings (pp. 702–707).Google Scholar
  79. Salamon, L. (Ed.). (2002). The tools of government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Schmidt, S. W. (2004). The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494451.pdf.
  81. Selden, S. (2009). Human capital. Washington: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  82. Selden, S. C., & Sowa, J. E. (2015). Voluntary turnover in nonprofit human service organizations: The impact of high performance work practices. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(3), 182–207.Google Scholar
  83. Stephan, P. (1991). Relationships among market work, work aspirations, and volunteering: The case of retired women. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 20(2), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Studer, S. (2016). Volunteer management: Responding to the uniqueness of volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(4), 688–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Studer, S., & von Schnurbein, G. (2013). Organizational factors affecting volunteers: A literature review on volunteer coordination. Voluntas, 24(2), 403–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stukas, A., Worth, K., Clary, E., & Snyder, M. (2009). The matching of motivations to affordances in the volunteer environment: An index for assessing the impact of multiple matches on volunteer outcomes. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(1), 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tang, F., Morrow-Howell, N., & Hong, S. (2009). Inclusion of diverse older populations in volunteering: The importance of institutional facilitations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(5), 810–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thomas, J. (2012). Citizen, customer, partner. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  89. Thompson, A. M., III. (1993). Volunteers and their communities: A comparative analysis of volunteer firefighters. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 22(2), 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tidwell, M. V. (2005). A social identity model of prosocial behaviors within nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 15(4), 449–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. United States Fire Administration (2007). Retention and Recruitment for Volunteer Emergency Services; Challenges and Solutions. Retrieved from htpp://www.usfa.fema.gov/.
  92. United States Fire Administration (2012). Funding alternatives for emergency medical and fire services. Retrieved from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/fa_331.pdf.
  93. United States Fire Administration (2016). National Fire Department Census quick facts. Retrieved from https://apps.usfa.fema.gov/census/summary.
  94. UPS Foundation (2002) A Guide To Investing In Volunteer Resources Management: Improve Your Philanthropic Portfolio.Google Scholar
  95. Vecina, M., Chacón, F., Sueiro, M., & Barrón, A. (2012). Volunteer engagement: Does engagement predict the degree of satisfaction among new volunteers and the commitment of those who have been active longer? Applied Psychology, 61(1), 130–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Welty Peachey, J., Lyras, A., Cohen, A., Bruening, J., & Cunningham, G. (2014). Exploring the motives and retention factors of sport-for-development volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(6), 1052–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B., & Snell, S. A. (2001). Human resources and the resource based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27(6), 701–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Long Island UniversityBrookvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of BaltimoreBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations