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Trust, Social Capital, and Intermediation Roles in Microfinance and Microenterprise Development

  • Debadutta K. PandaEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examines the role of trust and intermediation functions in microfinance and microenterprise development. Fifteen Self-help Groups (SHGs) were selected from three different locations in India for Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and in-depth personal discussions. The peer trust was found higher than the intermediation trust during the microfinance group formation as well as group operations. The level of intermediation trust was higher than the peer trust during microenterprise development. The entry level trust was cognitive in nature, and transformed to ‘affective peer trust’ and ‘affective intermediation trust’ at the operational level. Trust was found to be the causality of social capital in SHGs. Intermediation trust was higher for early adopters of entrepreneurship than that of the late adopters. In case of microentrepreneur, the cognitive intermediation trust was transformed to affective intermediation trust with the passage of time.

Keywords

Microfinance Microenterprise Trust Social capital Intermediation role Self-help Group 

Résumé

Cette étude examine le rôle de la confiance et des fonctions d’intermédiation dans le développement du microfinancement et des microentreprises. Quinze groupes d’entraide ont été sélectionnés dans trois endroits différents d’Inde pour des discussions de groupe ciblées et des discussions personnelles approfondies. Il a été constaté que la confiance entre homologues était supérieure à la confiance d’intermédiation au cours de la formation du groupe de microfinance et les opérations de groupe. Le niveau de la confiance d’intermédiation était supérieur à la confiance entre homologues au cours du développement des microentreprises. La confiance de départ était de nature cognitive et était transformée en « confiance affective entre homologues » et en « confiance d’intermédiation affective » au niveau opérationnel. Il a été constaté que la confiance était la causalité du capital social dans les groupes d’entraide. La confiance d’intermédiation était supérieure pour les adopteurs précoces de l’entrepreneuriat à celle des adopteurs tardifs. Dans le cas du microentrepreneur, la confiance d’intermédiation cognitive était transformée en confiance d’intermédiation affective avec le temps.

Zusammenfassung

Diese Studie untersucht die Rolle von Vertrauens- und Vermittlungsfunktionen bei der Entwicklung der Mikrofinanzierung und von Mikrounternehmen. Es wurden 15 Selbsthilfegruppen aus drei verschiedenen Orten in Indien für Fokusgruppendiskussionen und ausführliche persönliche Gespräche ausgewählt. Man stellte fest, dass das Peer-Vertrauen bei der Gründung der Mikrofinanzgruppe sowie den Gruppentätigkeiten größer war als das Vermittlungsvertrauen. Während der Entwicklung des Mikrounternehmens war das Vermittlungsvertrauen größer als das Peer-Vertrauen. Das Vertrauen auf der Einstiegsstufe war kognitiver Art und wandelte sich auf der betrieblichen Ebene in „affektives Peer-Vertrauen“und „affektives Vermittlungsvertrauen“. In den Selbsthilfegruppen erwies sich das Vertrauen als die Kausalität des sozialen Kapitals. Das Vermittlungsvertrauen war bei frühen Teilnehmern der Unternehmung größer als das Vertrauen bei späteren Teilnehmern. Bei den Mikrounternehmern wandelte sich das kognitive Vermittlungsvertrauen im Laufe der Zeit in affektives Vermittlungsvertrauen.

Resumen

El presente estudio examina el papel de la confianza y de las funciones de intermediación en el desarrollo de las microfinanzas y las microempresas. Se seleccionaron quince Grupos de Autoayuda (Self-help Groups, “SHG”) de tres lugares diferentes en India para Debates de Grupos Focales y debates personales en profundidad. Se encontró que la confianza entre iguales era mayor que la confianza de intermediación durante la formación del grupo de microfinanzas, así como también en las operaciones del grupo. El nivel de confianza de intermediación fue superior que la confianza entre pares durante el desarrollo de microempresas. La confianza en el nivel de entrada era de naturaleza cognitiva, y se transformó en “confianza afectiva entre pares” y “confianza afectiva de intermediación” a nivel operativo. Se encontró que la confianza es la causalidad del capital social en los SHG. La confianza de intermediación fue superior para los primeros en adoptar el espíritu emprendedor que la de los últimos en adoptarlo. En el caso del microempresario, la confianza cognitiva de intermediación se transformó en confianza afectiva de intermediación con el paso del tiempo.

摘要

本研究检验信任与中介功能在微型金融与微型企业发展中所扮演的角色。从印度三个不同地方选取十五个自助团体(Self-help Groups (SHGs) )进行专题小组讨论(Focus Group Discussions)与深度个人讨论。研究发现,在微型金融团体形成以及团体运营过程中,同伴信任要高于中介信任。 入门层次的信任(entry level trust)是属于认知性的,并在运营层次中被转化为“情感同伴信任(affective peer trust)”与“情感中介信任(affective intermediation trust)”。研究发现,在自助团体中,信任是社会资本的起因。对于较早接受企业家精神的人而言,与较迟接受企业家精神的人相比,其中介信任较高。在微型企业的情况中,随着时间的流逝,认知中介信任(cognitive intermediation trust)被转化为情感中介信任。

要約

本研究では、マイクロファイナンスと小規模企業開発の信頼および仲介機能の役割を調査する。フォーカス・グループ・ディスカッションと個人の詳細なディスカッションについて、インドにおける3 つの異なる場所からフィフティーン・セルフヘルプ・グループ (SHG) を選択した。ピア信頼は、マイクロファイナンス・グループの形成、集団志向における仲介信頼より高かった。仲介信頼は、マイクロファイナンス開発中のピア・トラストよりレベルが高かった。エントリ・レベルの信頼は自然の中で認知され、「感情ピア信頼」と業務レベルの「感情的仲介信頼」に変換された。信頼は、SHGにおける社会資本の因果関係が明らかになった。仲介信頼は、後者の適用者より早期の起業家の方が高かった。マイクロ起業家の場合、認知的仲介信頼は時間の経過とともに感情的仲介信頼に変換された。

ملخص

تتناول هذه الدراسة دور مهام الثقة والوساطة في تنمية تمويل المشاريع المتناهية في الصغروالمشاريع الصغيرة. تم اختيار خمسة عشر مجموعات المساعدة الذاتية (SHGs) من ثلاثة مواقع مختلفة في الهند لمناقشات مجموعة تركيز ومناقشات شخصية متعمقة. تم إكتشاف أن ثقة النظير أعلى من ثقة الوساطة خلال تشكيل مجموعة تمويل المشاريع المتناهية في الصغر فضلا” عن تشغيل المجموعة. كان مستوى ثقة الوساطة أعلى من ثقة النظيرخلال تنمية المشروعات المتناهية في الصغر. كانت ثقة المستوى الأولي معرفية في الطبيعة، تحولت إلى “ثقة النظيرذات الصلة بالمشاعر” و “ثقة وساطة النظيرذات الصلة بالمشاعر “ على مستوى التشغيل. تم إيجاد أن الثقة هي العلاقة بين السبب والنتيجة لرأس المال الاجتماعي في مجموعات المساعدة الذاتية.(SHGs) كانت ثقة الوساطة للأوائل الذين يستخدمون تكنولوجيا حديثة للمشاريع أعلى من الذين يستخدمون تكنولوجيا حديثة في وقت متأخر. في حالة الأعمال المتناهية في الصغر، تحولت ثقة الوساطة المعرفية إلى ثقة الوساطة ذات الصلة بالمشاعرمع مرور الوقت.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

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Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Management Technology (IMT-Hyderabad)HyderabadIndia

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