Skip to main content

Analysis of Volunteering Among Spanish Children and Young People: Approximation to Their Determinants and Parental Influence

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors determining volunteerism among Spanish young people and children, with a particular emphasis on the influence of voluntary and social activities performed by parents. The database used is the 2002–2003 Time User Survey from the Spanish Statistical Office. We estimated the determinants influencing young people and children to become volunteers as a two-part decision: first, whether to volunteer or not, and second, to decide the amount of time they will spend volunteering. The results show that the most influential variables for all age groups are parents volunteering as examples, and parents’ educational level. We consider this a relevant topic for identifying the role of public policies in promoting volunteerism, or organizations’ activities for encouraging youth participation.

Résumé

L’objectif de cet article est de procéder à une analyse des facteurs déterminant le bénévolat parmi les jeunes et les enfants espagnols, en mettant particulièrement l’accent sur l’influence des activités sociales et bénévoles exercées par les parents. La base de données utilisée est l’enquête auprès des utilisateurs pour la période 2002 - 2003 par le Bureau espagnol des statistiques. Les facteurs déterminants exerçant une influence sur les jeunes et les enfants pour qu’ils deviennent bénévoles s’organisent selon nous comme une décision en deux parties : la première, le fait de faire ou non du bénévolat, et la seconde, décider de la durée du temps qui sera consacrée au bénévolat. Les résultats indiquent que les variables ayant la plus forte influence pour tous les groupes d’âge sont les parents engagés dans une activité de bénévolat à titre d’exemple et le niveau d’éducation de ces mêmes parents. Nous estimons que ceci constitue un thème pertinent afin d’identifier le rôle des politiques publiques ayant vocation à promouvoir le bénévolat ou les activités des organisations visant à encourager la participation des jeunes.

Zusammenfassung

Ziel dieses Beitrags ist eine Untersuchung der Faktoren, die das ehrenamtliche Engagement von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Spanien prägen, wobei insbesondere darauf eingegangen wird, inwieweit ehrenamtliche und soziale Tätigkeiten der Eltern einen Einfluss üben. Hierzu wurden die Daten aus der 2002-2003 durchgeführten Zeitbudgeterhebung des spanischen Statiskamtes verwendet. Wir betrachteten die Determinanten, die Einfluss darauf nehmen, ob Kinder und Jugendliche ehrenamtliche Tätigkeiten ausüben, als eine Entscheidung in zwei Schritten: Als erstes entscheiden sie, ob sie eine ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit ausüben wollen oder nicht. Anschließend entscheiden sie, wie viel Zeit sie für die ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit aufbringen wollen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass bei allen Altersgruppen eine beispielhafte ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit sowie das Bildungsniveau der Eltern die einflussreichsten Variablen sind. Wir halten dies für ein relevantes Thema zur Festlegung der Rolle der öffentlichen Politik bei der Förderung ehrenamtlicher Tätigkeiten und zur Bestimmung der Aktivitäten von Organisationen zur Förderung einer Beteiligung von Kindern und Jugendlichen.

Resumen

El objetivo del presente documento es analizar los factores que determinan el voluntariado entre los jóvenes y niños españoles, con referencia particular a la influencia de las actividades sociales y voluntarias llevadas a cabo por los padres. La base de datos utilizada es la Encuesta de Empleo del Tiempo de 2002-2003 del Instituto Nacional de Estadística español. Estimamos los determinantes que influyen en los jóvenes y en los niños para que se conviertan en voluntarios como una decisión de dos partes: en primer lugar, decidir si hacerse voluntarios o no, y en segundo lugar, decidir la cantidad de tiempo que dedicarán a hacer voluntariado. Los resultados muestran que las variables más influyentes en todos los grupos de edad son la realización de voluntariado por parte de los padres como ejemplos, y el nivel educativo de los padres. Consideramos que esto es un tema relevante para identificar el papel de las políticas públicas en la promoción del voluntariado, o en las actividades de las organizaciones para alentar la participación de la juventud.

摘要

本文的目的是分析决定西班牙年轻人和儿童志愿精神的因素,特别专注于父母所进行志愿和社会活动的影响。使用的数据库是西班牙统计局的2002-2003时间用户调查。我们预计,影响年轻人和儿童成为志愿者的决定性因素是两部分决定:首先,是否决定参加志愿;其次,决定他们希望花费在志愿上的时间量。结果显示,所有年龄段的大部分影响因素都是家长志愿榜样,以及家长的教育水平。我们认为这是确定促进志愿精神的公共政策角色或鼓励年轻人参与的组织活动的相关主题。

要約

本論文の目的は、スペインの若者と子どもたちが、特に親の自発的な社会活動の影響を受けることを考慮に入れてボランティア活動する決定要因を分析する。データベースは、スペイン統計局による2002~2003年のタイム・ユーザー調査を使用した。スペインの若者や子どもたちがボランティアになる2つの決定事項、第一にボランティアをするかどうか、第二にボランティアに費やす時間量に影響を与える決定要因について予測した。結果から、すべての年齢グループの中で最も影響を及ぼす変数は両親のボランティア活動および両親の教育レベルによることがわかった。ボランティア活動を促進する公共政策の役割もしくは青少年の参加を奨励する組織活動の識別に関連するテーマを考察する。

ملخص

الهدف من هذا البحث هو تحليل العوامل التي تحدد العمل التطوعي للشباب والأطفال الأسبان، مع التأكيد بوجه خاص على تأثير الأنشطة التطوعية والإجتماعية التي يقوم بها الآباء. قاعدة البيانات المستخدمة هي إستطلاع الرأي (Time User 2002-2003) من المعهد الوطني للإحصاء الأسباني. لقد فعلنا التقدير على التحديدات التي تؤثرعلى الشباب والأطفال ليكونوا متطوعين كقرار على مرحلتين: أولا˝٬ ما إذا كان يكون متطوعا˝ أم لا، وثانيا˝٬ لإتخاذ قرارعدد الساعات التي سيخصصونها للعمل التطوعي. لقد أظهرت النتائج أن المتغير الأكثر تأثيرا˝ في جميع الفئات العمرية هو تطوع الآباء كنماذج، والمستوى التعليمي للوالدين. نحن نعتبر أن هذا الموضوع ذو صلة لتحديد دور السياسات العامة لتعزيز العمل التطوعي أو أنشطة المنظمات لتشجيع مشاركة الشباب.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Other authors have taken this view. Kulik (2007), for example, uses it to analyze volunteer satisfaction and burnout. Lewton and Nievar (2012) use it to study the benefits family volunteer work has with regards to strengthening the family and to individual growth.

  2. 2.

    We have used the proposal put forward by García-Mainar and Marcuello (2007) and García-Mainar et al. (2009) to group the entities in this study. On the one hand, externally oriented organizations are on a par with instrumental entities. On the other, internally oriented organizations are on a par with expressive entities. Gil-Lacruz and Marcuello (2013) also include political organizations in the professional group. They state that the reasons of volunteers in professional areas could be more intrinsic to their person. The third group of entities is mixed.

References

  1. Alemán, C., & García, M. (2009). Hacia el pluralismo del bienestar: actores públicos e iniciativa social. Panorama Social, 9, 53–68.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2000). Participation in Heteroneneous Communities. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 847–904.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Amato, P. R., & Booth, A. (1997). A generation of risk: Growing up in an era of family upheaval. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Angulo, J. (2002). Asociarse los jóvenes, ¿para qué? y los adultos. Madrid: Instituto de la Juventud.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Youth adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 429–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Becker, P. E., & Hofmeister, H. (2000). Work hours and community involvement of dual-earner couples: Building social capital or competing for time? (Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center Working Paper #00-04). Ithaca: Cornell Careers Institute.

  8. Bekkers, R. (2007). Intergenerational transmission of volunteering. Acta Sociologica, 50, 99–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Berger, I. E. (2006). The influence of religion on philanthropy in Canada. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17, 115–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Beutel, A. M., & Kirkpatrick, J. M. (2004). Gender and prosocial values during adolescence: A research note. Sociological Quarterly, 45, 379–393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bowler, S., Donovan, T., & Hanneman, R. (2003). Art for democracy’s sake? Group membership and political engagement in Europe. Journal of Politics, 65, 1111–1129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Recent advances in research on the ecology human development. In R. K. Silbereisen, K. Eyferth, & G. Rudinger (Eds.), Development as action in context: Problem behaviour and normal youth development (pp. 287–309). Heidelberg: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  15. Cappellari, L., & Turati, G. (2004). Volunteer labour supply: The role of workers’ motivations. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 75, 619–643.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Caputo, R. (2009). Religious capital and intergenerational transmission of volunteering as correlates of civic engagement. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36, 983–1002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cooper, H., Valentine, J., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. (1999). Relationship between five after-school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 369–378.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Curtis, J. E., Grabb, E. G., & Baer, D. E. (1992). Voluntary association membership in fifteen countries: A comparative analysis. American Sociological Review, 57, 139–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Davies, J. C. (1965). The family’s role in political socialization. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 361, 10–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Douthitt, R. A. (1991). Children’s time use in single- and two-parent families: Does household organization matter? Home Economics Research Journal, 20, 40–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Eccles, J., & Barber, B. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 10–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Flanagan, C., Bowes, J., Jonsson, B., Csapo, B., & Sheblanova, E. (1998). Ties that bind: Correlates of adolescents’ civic commitments in seven countries. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 457–475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fletcher, A. C., Elder, G., & Mekos, D. (2000). Parental influences on adolescent involvement in community activities. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 29–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Freeman, R. (1997). Working for nothing: The supply of volunteer labor. Journal of Labor Economics, 15, 140–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Frisco, M. L., Muller, C., & Dodson, K. (2004). Participation in voluntary youth-serving associations and early adult voting behavior. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 660–676.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Ganzeboom, H. B. G., Treiman, D. J., & Ultee, W. C. (1991). Comparative intergenerational stratification research: Three generations and beyond. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 277–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. García, D., Ramírez, G., & Lima, A. (1998). La construcción de valores en la familia. In M. J. Rodrigo & J. Palacios (Coords.), Familia y desarrollo humano (pp. 201–220). Madrid: Alianza.

  28. García-Mainar, I., & Marcuello, C. (2007). Participación en Organizaciones No Lucrativas: Un Modelo Económico. Información Comercial Española ICE, Revista de Economía, 834, 237–258.

    Google Scholar 

  29. García-Mainar, I., Marcuello, C., & Saz, I. (2009). Voluntariado en Aragón: Análisis de los factores determinantes. Cuadernos Aragoneses de Economía, 19, 295–320.

    Google Scholar 

  30. García-Mainar, I., Marcuello, C., & Saz, I. (2010). Trabajo Voluntario en Organizaciones No Lucrativas: Análisis de los Factores Determinantes de las Diferencias entre Hombres y Mujeres. Hacienda Pública Española/Revista de Economía Pública, 192, 9–31.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Gaskin, K. (1998). What young people want from volunteering. London: Institute for Volunteering Research.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gaskin, K. (2004). Young people, volunteering and youth volunteering projects: A rapid review of the evidence. London: Institute for Volunteering Research.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gibbons, J. L., Lynn, M., & Stiles, D. A. (1997). Cross-national gender differences in adolescents’ preferences for free-time activities. Cross-Cultural Research, 31, 55–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Gilhooly, E. (1999). A foot in the door: Involving young people in society through voluntary action. Belfast: Voluntary Service Belfast.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Gil-Lacruz, A. I., & Marcuello, C. (2013). Voluntary work in Europe: Comparative analysis among countries and welfare systems. Social Indicators Research, 114, 371–382.

  36. Glanville, J. L. (2004). Voluntary associations and social network structure: Why organizational location and type are important. Social Forum, 19, 465–491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Glass, J., Bengtson, V. L., & Dunham, C. (1986). Attitude similarity in three-generation families: Socialization, status inheritance, or reciprocal influence? American Sociological Review, 51, 685–698.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Grimm, J. R., Dietz, N., Spring, K., Arey, K., & Foster-Bey, J. (2005). Building active citizens: The role of social institutions in teen volunteering. Washington, DC: Corporation for National and Community Service.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Grusec, J. E. (1991). The socialization of altruism. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Prosocial behavior (pp. 9–33). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Haddad, M. A. (2004). Community determinates of volunteer participation and the promotion of civic health: The case of Japan. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33, 8–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hall, M., McKeown, L., & Roberts, K. (2001). Caring Canadians, involved Canadians: Highlights from the 2000 National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (Catalogue No. 71-542-XIE). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

  42. Hanks, M. (1981). Youth, voluntary associations and political socialization. Social Forces, 60, 211–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Hart, D., Atkins, R., & Donnelly, T. M. (2006). Community service and moral development. In M. Pillenand & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 633–656). Mahwah: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hart, D., Donnelly, T. M., Youniss, J., & Atkins, R. (2007). High school community service as a predictor of adult voting and volunteering. American Educational Research Journal, 44, 197–219.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47, 153–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Hodgkinson, V. A. (1990). The future of individual giving and volunteering: The inseparable link between religious community and individual generosity. In R. Wuthnow, V.A. Hodgkinson, and Associates (Eds.), Faith and philanthropy in America: Exploring the role of religion in America’s voluntary sector. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

  47. Hodgkinson, V. (1995). The role of family and community in transmitting the tradition of care. In P. Schervish, V. Hodgkinson, & M. Gates (Eds.), Care and community in modern society. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Huebner, A. J., & Mancini, J. A. (2003). Shaping structure out of school time use among youth: The effects of self, family, and friend systems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 453–463.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hyman, H. H. (1959). Political socialization. Glencoe: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Janoski, T., & Wilson, J. (1995). Pathways to voluntarism: Family socialization and status transmission models. Social Forces, 74, 271–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Jennings, M. K., & Niemi, R. G. (1981). Generations and politics. A panel study of young adults and their parents. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Jennings, M. K., Stoker, L., & Bowers, J. (2001). Politics across generations: Family transmission reexamined. Paper WP2001-15. Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California.

  53. John, P. (2005). The contribution of volunteering, trust, and networks to educational performance. Policy Studies Journal, 33, 635–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. John, P., Halpern, D., & Morris, Z. (2002). Acquiring political knowledge through school curricula and practices: Evidence from England. Paper presented at the European Consortium Political Research Joint Sessions, Turin, March 2002.

  55. Jordan, W., & Nettles, S. (2000). How students invest their time outside of school: Effects on school-related outcomes. Social Psychology of Education, 3, 217–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Knoke, D. (1990). Organizing for collective action. The political economies of associations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Kulik, L. (2007). Predicting responses to volunteering among adolescents in Israel: The contribution of personal and situational variables. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 18, 35–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Langton, K. P. (1969). Political socialization. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Lewton, A. R., & Nievar, M. A. (2012). Strengthening families through volunteerism: Integrating family volunteerism and family life education. Marriage & Family Review, 48, 689–710.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Littlepage, L., Perry, J. L., Goff, P., & Brudney, J. L. (2005). Love thy neighbor: The role of faith in volunteer motivation. Center for Urban Policy and the Environment (05-C01). Indiana: School of Public and Environmental Affairs, University–Purdue University Indianapolis.

  61. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Marta, E., Gugliemetti, C., & Pozzi, M. (2006). Volunteerism during young adulthood: An Italian investigation into motivational patterns. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17, 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. McFarland, D. A., & Thomas, R. J. (2006). Bowling young: How youth voluntary associations influence adult political participation. American Sociological Review, 71, 401–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. McLellan, J. A., & Youniss, J. (2003). Two systems of youth service: Determinants of voluntary and required youth community service. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 47–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. McPherson, J. M., & Rotolo, T. (1996). Testing a dynamic model of social composition: Diversity and change in voluntary groups. American Sociological Review, 61, 179–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Menchick, P. L., & Weisbrod, B. A. (1987). Volunteer labor supply. Journal of Public Economics, 32, 159–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Merino, R. (2006). Participación y asociacionismo de los jóvenes en Europa tendencias sociales y retos sociopolíticos. Revista Internacional de Sociología (RIS), 43, 193–215.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Metz, E., McLellan, J., & Youniss, J. (2003). Types of voluntary service and adolescents’ civic development. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 188–203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Montero, J. R., Font, J., & Torcal, M. (2006). Ciudadanos, asociaciones y participación en España. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Morales, L., Mota, F., & Pérez-Nievas, S. (2006). La participación en asociaciones: factores individuales. In J. R. Montero, J. Font, & M. Torcal (Eds.), Ciudadanos, asociaciones y participación en España. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Niemi, R. G., Ross, D. R., & Alexander, J. (1978). The similarity of political values of parents and college-age youths. Public Opinion Quarterly, 42, 503–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Olson, M. (1965). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Park, J. Z., & Smith, C. (2000). To whom much has been given…: Religious capital and community voluntarism among churchgoing Protestants. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39, 272–286.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Parry, G., Moyser, G., & Day, N. (1992). Political participation and democracy in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  75. Passmore, A., & French, D. (2001). Development and administration of a measure to assess adolescents’ participation in leisure activities. Adolescence, 36, 67–75.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Plutzer, E. (2002). Becoming a habitual voter: Inertia, Resources, and growth in young adulthood. American Political Science Review, 96, 41–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American democracy. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Quintelier, E. (2007). Differences in political participation between young and old people: A representative study of the differences in political participation between young and old people. Contemporary Politics, 13, 165–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Quintelier, E., Hogghe, M., & Badescu, G. (2007). Parental Influence on Adolescents’ Political Participation A Comparison of Belgian, Canadian and Romanian Survey Data. Paper presented at the International Conference on Political Socialisation Örebro Universitet, October 8–10.

  80. Raymore, L., Godbey, G., & Crawford, D. (1994). Self-esteem, gender and socio-economic status: Their relation to perceptions of constraints on leisure among adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 26, 99–118.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Roker, D., Player, K., & Coleman, J. (1999). Challenging the Image: Young people as volunteers and campaigners. Leicester: Youth Work Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rosenstone, S. J., & Hansen, J. M. (2003). Mobilization, participation, and democracy in America. New York: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Rosenthal, S., Feiring, C., & Lewis, M. (1998). Political volunteering from late adolescence to young adulthood: Patterns and predictions. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 477–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Rossi, A. S. (2001). Domains and dimensions of social responsibility: A sociodemographic profile. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Caring and doing for others: Social responsibility in the domains of family, work, and community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Sarre, S., & Tarling, R. (2010). The volunteering activities of children aged 8–15. Voluntary Sector Review, 1, 293–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Shannon, C. S. (2009). An untapped resource: Understanding volunteers aged 8 to 12. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 828–845.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Smidt, C. (1999). Religion and civic engagement: A comparative analysis. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 565, 176–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Smith, D. H. (1994). Determinants of voluntary association participation and volunteering: A literature review. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23, 243–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Smith, E. S. (1999). The effects of investments in the social capital of youth on political and civic behaviour in young adulthood: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology, 20, 553–580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Stoll, M. A. (2001). Race, neighborhood poverty, and participation in voluntary associations. Sociological Forum, 16, 529–557.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Stolle, D., & Hooghe, M. (2004). The roots of social capital: Attitudinal and network mechanisms in the relation between youth and adult indicators of social capital. Acta Politica, 39, 422–441.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Stolle, D., & Rochon, T. (1998). Are all associations alike? Member diversity, associational type and the creation of social capital. American Behavioral Scientists, 42, 47–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Subirats, J. (1999). ¿Existe sociedad civil en España? Madrid: Fundación Encuentro.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Sundeen, R., & Raskoff, S. (1994). Volunteering among teenagers in the United States. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 23, 383–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Taniguchi, H. (2006). Men’s and womens’ volunteering gender difference in the effects of employment and family characteristics. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35, 83–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Toppe, C., Golombek, S., Kirsch, A., Michel, J., & Weber, M. (2002). Engaging youth in lifelong service: Findings and recommendations for encouraging a tradition of voluntary action among America’s youth. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Van Deth, J. W. (2006). Democracy and involvement. The benevolent aspects of social participation. In M. Torcal & J. M. Montero (Eds.), Political disaffection in contemporary democracies (pp. 101–129). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Verba, S., Schlozman, K., & Brady, H. (1995). Voice and equality. Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Warren, M. E. (2001). Associations and democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Wilhelm, M. O., Brown, E., Rooney, P. M., & Steinberg, R. (2008). The intergenerational transmission of generosity. Journal of Public Economics, 92, 2146–2156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Wilson, J., & Musick, M. (1999). The effects of volunteering on the volunteer. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62, 141–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Wuthnow, R. (2000). How religious groups promote forgiving: A national study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39(2), 125–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Yeung, A. B. (2004). An intricate triangle—Religiosity, volunteering, and social capital: The European perspective, the case of Finland. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33, 401–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., & Yates, M. (1997). What we know about engendering civic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 620–631.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Youniss, J., & Yates, M. (1997). Community service and social responsibility in youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ma Isabel Saz Gil.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mainar, I.G., Servós, C.M. & Gil, M.I.S. Analysis of Volunteering Among Spanish Children and Young People: Approximation to Their Determinants and Parental Influence. Voluntas 26, 1360–1390 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-014-9487-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Participation
  • Volunteers
  • Donations of time
  • Non-profit organizations