Programmable ASIPs for Multimode MIMO Transceiver
- 13 Downloads
Application specific instruction-set processors (ASIP) are a programmable and flexible alternative of traditional finite state machine (FSM) controlled register-transfer level (RTL) designs for multimode basedband systems. In this paper, we present two ASIPs for small scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems that demonstrate the soundness and effectiveness of ASIPs for this type of applications. The first ASIP is programmed with multiple MIMO symbol detection algorithms for 4 × 4 systems. The supported detection algorithms are minimum mean-square error (MMSE), two variants of the selective spanning with fast enumeration (SSFE) and K-best list sphere detection (LSD). The second ASIP supports MMSE and zero-forcing dirty paper coding (ZF-DPC) algorithms for a base station (BS) with 4 antennas and for 4 users. Both ASIPs are based on transport triggered architecture (TTA) and are programmed with a retargetable compiler with high level language to meet the time-to-market requirements. The detection and precoding algorithms can be switched in the respective ASIPs based on the error-rate requirements. Depending on the algorithms, MIMO detection ASIP delivers 6.16–66.66 Mbps throughput at a clock frequency of 200 MHz on 90 nm technology. The precoder ASIP provides a throughput of 52.17 and 51.95 Mbps for MMSE and ZF-DPC precoding respectively at a clock frequency of 210 MHz on 90 nm technology.
KeywordsMIMO OFDM ASIP TTA VLSI
The research is supported by Academy of Finland and 5G Communication with a Heterogeneous, Agile Mobile network in the Pyeongchang winter Olympic competition (5G CHAMPION) project.
- 1.Shahabuddin, S., Janhunen, J., Suikkanen, E., Steendam, H., & Juntti, M. (2014). An adaptive detector implementation for mimo-ofdm downlink. In International conference on cognitive radio wireless networks (pp. 305–310).Google Scholar
- 2.Shahabuddin, S., Silvén, O., & Juntti, M. (2017). Asip design for multiuser mimo broadcast precoding. In European conference on networks and communications.Google Scholar
- 3.Corporaal, H. (1994). Design of transport triggered architectures. In Proceedings in Great Lakes symposium on VLSI (pp. 130–135).Google Scholar
- 4.Corporaal, H. (1997). Microprocessor architectures: from VLIW to Tta. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- 5.Esko, O., Jääskeläinen, P., Huerta, P., de La Lama, C.S., Takala, J., & Martinez, J.I. (2010). Customized exposed datapath soft-core design flow with compiler support. In Proceedings of the international conference on field programmable logic and applications, ser. FPL ’10 (pp. 217–222). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1109/FPL.2010.51
- 10.Antikainen, J., Salmela, P., Silven, O., Juntti, M., Takala, J., & Myllyla, M. (2007). Application-specific instruction set processor implementation of list sphere detector. In Proceedings of the annual asilomar conference on signals, systems and computers (pp. 943–947).Google Scholar
- 15.3GPP. (2016). Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation. In 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP), TS 36.211. [Online]. Available: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36211.htm .
- 16.Han, S., Yang, C., Bengtsson, M., & Perez-Neira, A.I. (2009). Channel norm-based user scheduler in coordinated multi-point systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE global telecommunications conference (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
- 17.Wubben, D., Bohnke, R., Kuhn, V., & Kammeyer, K.D. (2003). Mmse extension of v-blast based on sorted qr decomposition. In Proceedings of the IEEE vehicular technology conference, (Vol. 1 pp. 508–512).Google Scholar
- 18.Luethi, P., Studer, C., Duetsch, S., Zgraggen, E., Kaeslin, H., Felber, N., & Fichtner, W. (2008). Gram-schmidt-based qr decomposition for mimo detection: Vlsi implementation and comparison. In Asia Pacific conference on circuits and systems (pp. 830–833).Google Scholar
- 19.Collings, I.B., Butler, M.R.G., & McKay, M. (2004). Low complexity receiver design for mimo bit-interleaved coded modulation. In Proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on spread spectrum techniques and applications (pp. 12–16).Google Scholar
- 20.Li, M., Bougard, B., Lopez, E.E., Bourdoux, A., Novo, D., Perre, L.V.D., & Catthoor, F. (2008). Selective spanning with fast enumeration: a near maximum-likelihood mimo detector designed for parallel programmable baseband architectures. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 737–741).Google Scholar
- 21.Chen, C.W., Tsao, H.W., & Tsai, P.Y. (2013). Equal-rate qr decomposition based on mmse technique for multi-user mimo precoding. In Proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (pp. 435–440).Google Scholar
- 25.Suikkanen, E., Janhunen, J., Shahabuddin, S., & Juntti, M. (2013). Study of adaptive detection for mimo-ofdm systems. In 2013 international symposium on system on chip (SoC) (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- 27.Rizk, M., Baghdadi, A., Jezequel, M., Mohanna, Y., & Atat, Y. (2016). Design and prototyping flow of flexible and efficient nisc-based architectures for mimo turbo equalization and demapping. Electronics, 5(3). [Online]. Available: http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/5/3/50.
- 28.Bhagawat, P., Wang, W., Uppal, M., Choi, G., Xiong, Z., Yeary, M., & Harris, A. (2007). An fpga implementation of dirty paper precoder. In IEEE international conference on communications (ICC) (pp. 2761–2766).Google Scholar
- 29.Shimazaki, K., Yoshizawa, S., Hatakawa, Y., Matsumoto, T., Konishi, S., & Miyanaga, Y. (2013). A vlsi design of an arrayed pipelined tomlinson-harashima precoder for mu-mimo systems. In Asia-Pacific signal and information processing association conference (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- 30.Barrenechea, M., Barbero, L., Mendicute, M., & Thompson, J. (2010). Design and hardware implementation of a low-complexity multiuser vector precoder. In Conference on design and architectures for signal and image processing (pp. 160–167).Google Scholar
- 31.Prabhu, H., Rodrigues, J.N., Liu, L., & Edfors, O. (2017). 3.6 a 60pj/b 300mb/s 128x8 massive mimo precoder-detector in 28 nm fd-soi. In Proceedings of the IEEE international solid state circuits conference (ISSCC) (pp. 60–61).Google Scholar