Journal of Signal Processing Systems

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 55–64 | Cite as

Fast Algorithm and Efficient Architecture for Integer and Fractional Motion Estimation

  • Obianuju Ndili
  • Tokunbo OgunfunmiEmail author


Motion estimation in H.264/AVC, is done in two parts – integer motion estimation, and fractional motion estimation. Hardware reuse for both parts is inefficient due to the differences between them. In this paper we address the hardware reuse problem by proposing a, fast motion estimation algorithm as well as a pipelined FPGA-based, field programmable system-on-chip (FPSoC), for integer and fractional motion estimation. Our results show that the rate-distortion loss of our algorithm is insignificant when compared to full search in H.264/AVC. Its average Y-PSNR loss is 0.065 dB, its average percentage bit rate increase is 5 %, and its power consumption is 76 mW. Our FPSoC is hardware-efficient, even out-performing some state-of-the-art ASIC implementations. It can support up to high definition 1280 × 720p video at 24Hz. Thus, our proposed algorithm and architecture is suitable for delivery of high quality video on low power devices and low bit rate applications which typically use H.264/AVC baseline profile@levels 1–3.1.


H.264/AVC Motion estimation VLSI FPSoC 


  1. 1.
    Wiegand, T., Sullivan, G. J., Bjontegaard, G., & Luthra, A. (2003). Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard. IEEE Transactions Circuits Systems Video Technology., 13(7), 560–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sullivan, G. J., Topiwala, P., & Luthra, A. (2004). The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the Fidelity Range Extensions. In Proceedings of SPIE Conference on Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVII, August 2004.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang, L., & Gao, W. (2007). Reusable architecture and complexity-controllable algorithm for the integer/fractional motion estimation of H.264. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 53(2), 749–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, T.-C., Chien, S.-Y., Huang, Y.-W., Tsai, C.-H., Chen, C.-Y., Chen, T.-W., & Chen, L.-G. (2006). Analysis and architecture design of an HDTV720p 30 frames/s H.264/AVC encoder. IEEE Transactions Circuits Systems Video Technology., 16(6), 673–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, Y.-H., Chen, T.-C., Tsai, C.-Y., Tsai, S.-F., & Chen, L.-G. (2009). Algorithm and architecture design of power-oriented H.264/AVC baseline profile encoder for portable devices. IEEE Transactions Circuits Systems Video Technology., 19(8), 1118–1128.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuroki, K. (2006). Mobile multimedia platform. FUJITSU Scientific Technology Journal, 42(2), 181–189.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakayama, H., Watanabe, Y., & Higashi, A. (2008). H.264/AVC HDTV video codec LSI. FUJITSU Scientific Technology Journal, 44(3), 351–358.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ndili, O., & Ogunfunmi, T. (2010). Hardware-oriented modified diamond search for motion estimation in H.264/AVC. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference On Image Processing (ICIP 2010), pp. 749–752, Sept. 2010.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ndili, O., & Ogunfunmi, T. (2011). Algorithm and architecture co-design of hardware-oriented, modified diamond search for fast motion estimation in H.264/AVC. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ndili, O., & Ogunfunmi, T. (2010). Efficient sub-pixel interpolation and low power VLSI architecture for fractional motion estimation in H.264/AVC. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS 2010).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ndili, O., & Ogunfunmi, T. (2011). Efficient Fast Algorithm and FPSoC for Integer and Fractional Motion Estimation in H.264/AVC. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference On Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Jan. 2011.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Development System. [Online at]. 2013.
  13. 13.
    Xilinx Platform Studio and Embedded Development Kit. [Online at]. 2013.
  14. 14.
    H.264/AVC reference software JM 13.2. [Online at]. 2013

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Santa Clara UniversitySanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations