Computer vision tasks often have side information available that is helpful to solve the task. For example, for crowd counting, the camera perspective (e.g., camera angle and height) gives a clue about the appearance and scale of people in the scene. While side information has been shown to be useful for counting systems using traditional hand-crafted features, it has not been fully utilized in deep learning based counting systems. In order to incorporate the available side information, we propose an adaptive convolutional neural network (ACNN), where the convolution filter weights adapt to the current scene context via the side information. In particular, we model the filter weights as a low-dimensional manifold within the high-dimensional space of filter weights. The filter weights are generated using a learned “filter manifold” sub-network, whose input is the side information. With the help of side information and adaptive weights, the ACNN can disentangle the variations related to the side information, and extract discriminative features related to the current context (e.g. camera perspective, noise level, blur kernel parameters). We demonstrate the effectiveness of ACNN incorporating side information on 3 tasks: crowd counting, corrupted digit recognition, and image deblurring. Our experiments show that ACNN improves the performance compared to a plain CNN with a similar number of parameters and achieves similar or better than state-of-the-art performance on crowd counting task. Since existing crowd counting datasets do not contain ground-truth side information, we collect a new dataset with the ground-truth camera angle and height as the side information. We also perform ablation experiments, mainly for crowd counting, to study the helpfulness of the side information, and the effect of the placement of the adaptive convolutional layers in order to get insight about ACNNs.
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The perspective value on a pixel location is proportional to the size of the object if the object exists there.
To reduce clutter, here we do not show the bias term for the convolution.
The mean absolute difference (MAD) between the density maps generated using the original perspective maps and our perspective maps is 0.475 on average, and [0.029, 0.818, 0.800, 0.597, 0.131] respectively on the five test scenes.
The MAD between the original density maps and those using single Gaussian kernels is 2.893 on average, and [0.582, 4.491, 1.946, 7.078, 0.368] respectively on the five test scenes (using our perspective map). This is because the ROI boundary cuts through the most crowded regions on scenes 2 and 4.
CSRNet termed the first ten convolution layers from VGG as front-end, which is more commonly referred as back-end elsewhere.
On the clean MNIST dataset, the 2-conv and 4-conv CNN architectures achieve 0.81% and 0.69% error, while the current state-of-the-art is \(\sim \) 0.23% error (Ciresan et al. 2012).
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The work described in this paper was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. [T32-101/15-R] and CityU 11212518). We gratefully acknowledge the support of NVIDIA Corporation with the donation of the Tesla K40 GPU used for this research.
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Communicated by S. Soatto.
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Kang, D., Dhar, D. & Chan, A.B. Incorporating Side Information by Adaptive Convolution. Int J Comput Vis 128, 2897–2918 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11263-020-01345-8
- Convolutional neural network (CNN)
- Deep learning
- Crowd counting