The Ignorant Led by the Blind: A Hybrid Human–Machine Vision System for Fine-Grained Categorization

Abstract

We present a visual recognition system for fine-grained visual categorization. The system is composed of a human and a machine working together and combines the complementary strengths of computer vision algorithms and (non-expert) human users. The human users provide two heterogeneous forms of information object part clicks and answers to multiple choice questions. The machine intelligently selects the most informative question to pose to the user in order to identify the object class as quickly as possible. By leveraging computer vision and analyzing the user responses, the overall amount of human effort required, measured in seconds, is minimized. Our formalism shows how to incorporate many different types of computer vision algorithms into a human-in-the-loop framework, including standard multiclass methods, part-based methods, and localized multiclass and attribute methods. We explore our ideas by building a field guide for bird identification. The experimental results demonstrate the strength of combining ignorant humans with poor-sighted machines the hybrid system achieves quick and accurate bird identification on a dataset containing 200 bird species.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Our user model assumes binary or multinomial attributes; however, one could use continuous attribute values for the computer vision component described in this section

  2. 2.

    The integral in Eq. 26 involves a bottom-up traversal of \(T=(V,E)\), at each step convolving a spatial score map with a unary score map (takes time \(O(n \log n)\) time in the number of pixels).

  3. 3.

    Maximum likelihood inference involves a bottom-up traversal of \(T\), doing a distance transform operation (Felzenszwalb et al. 2008) for each part in the tree (takes time \(O(n)\) time in the number of pixels).

  4. 4.

    in practice, we also computed an average segmentation mask for each part-aspect and used that to weight each extracted patch, see supplementary material

  5. 5.

    http://www.allaboutbirds.org/NetCommunity/page.aspx?pid=1053

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Correspondence to Steve Branson.

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Communicated by M. Hebert.

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Branson, S., Van Horn, G., Wah, C. et al. The Ignorant Led by the Blind: A Hybrid Human–Machine Vision System for Fine-Grained Categorization. Int J Comput Vis 108, 3–29 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11263-014-0698-4

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Keywords

  • Fine-grained categorization
  • Human-in-the-loop
  • Interactive
  • Parts
  • Attributes
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Deformable part models
  • Pose mixture models
  • Object recognition
  • Information gain
  • Birds