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Molecular phylodynamics of infectious bursal disease viruses

Abstract

The present study was conducted to study the molecular phylodynamics of the Indian field IBDVs. A total of 13 organized commercial poultry farms and 29 village poultry flocks were recruited in the study. The broiler flocks showed 15.25–60.18% mortality, followed by 12.4% in improved native poultry varieties and 5% in indigenous birds. The 664 bp hypervariable VP2 gene fragment of Western and Central Indian vvIBDVs showed 97.14–98.79 and 94.49–96.69% identity to Pakistani and South Indian vvIBDVs, respectively. An isolate was 99.54% identical to the Ventri-Plus vaccine strain, while three IBDVs showed maximum identity with the Georgia strain. Out of 22, 19 strains showed typical vvIBDV amino acid signature, while three strains showed substitutions specific to classical IBDVs. Central Indian vvIBDVs showed conserved substitutions at N212D and E300A, which can be used as a regional marker. Phylogenetic genogrouping placed global IBDVs into seven genogroups based upon virulence and geographical distribution. Nineteen field vvIBDVs were placed in the G3 genogroup, and the other three were grouped with classical IBDVs in G1 genogroup. A nucleotide span from 584 to 1248 covering VP2 hypervariable fragment was found suitable for correct genogrouping of field IBDVs. The Bayesian evolutionary analysis showed tMRCA of the year 2009 for 8 Western Indian vvIBDVs with vvIBDV from Pakistan. Central Indian vvIBDVs were evolved in the year 1991 from BD-3 and PY12 strains of vvIBDVs from Bangladesh and Pondicherry, respectively. An isolate showed evolution in year 2010 from the Nigerian ABIC strain, while three classical strains showed tMRCA of the year 2009 with the Georgia strain as a recent common ancestor.

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Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge M/s Ventri Biologicals, VHPL, Pune, and M/s. Saumya Hatcheries, Jakekur MIDC, Omarga for supplying embryonated chicken eggs, and the poultry farmers gave consents to include the samples in the study.

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The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were received during the preparation of this manuscript.

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SPA and MBK contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by AAA, VGC, RCK and SGC. The first draft of the manuscript was written by AAA and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sudhakar P. Awandkar.

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Edited by Zhen F. Fu.

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Agnihotri, A.A., Awandkar, S.P., Kulkarni, M.B. et al. Molecular phylodynamics of infectious bursal disease viruses. Virus Genes 58, 350–360 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-022-01905-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-022-01905-9

Keywords

  • IBDV
  • Genogroups
  • Evolution
  • tMRCA