Isolation of Pteropine orthoreovirus from Pteropus vampyrus in Garut, Indonesia
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Flying foxes belonging to the genus Pteropus are known to be reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. In this study, we describe the isolation of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) from rectal swab samples of Pteropus vampyrus in Indonesia. PRV is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that can be transmitted from bats to humans. Rectal swabs (n = 91) were screened by PCR for PRV and 10 (11%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences indicated that the S2, S3, S4, M3, L2, and L3 segments of one isolate (Garut-69) were closely related to previously isolated strains in Indonesia. The remaining gene segments showed both similarity and genetic divergence with other PRV strains, suggesting that re-assortment events had occurred. This is the first report of PRV infection to P. vampyrus in West Java, Indonesia.
KeywordsIndonesia Pteropine orthoreovirus Pteropus vampyrus Phylogenetic analysis PCR
This study was supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) within the framework of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS).
HT, TM, KM, SA and EH designed the study. Sample collection from flying foxes was performed by HT, CB, NLPIM, RT, HS, S, DP, DDC, RK, KI, KM, and EH. HT carried out virus isolation, high-throughput sequencing and PCR. CB, NLPIM, RT, HS, and KM contributed to cell culture experiments. TO and TM contributed to sequencing data and PCR analysis. HT wrote the initial draft. TM and EH edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines of the care and use of animals were followed. Flying foxes were captured with the permission issued by the director-general for the conservation of natural resources and ecosystems, Indonesian Ministry of Forestry (No. SK.211/KSDAE/SET/KSA.2/7/2016). The permission for sample collection from 100 individuals per year is also specified in this document. The permission for catching flying foxes with a net was authorized by the regional office of environment and forestry in Garut (No. BA.09/BBKSDA.JABAR-5.1/Res Wil XVIII/2016 in September 2016, BA.07/SKW-5/Sancang/3/2017 in March 2017). The wild animal transportation permit was authorized by the regional office of environment and forestry in Ciamis (SI.953/BBKSDA-JABAR.5/2016 in September 2016, SI.360/BKW.III/3/2017 in March 2017). The procedures for sample collection were carried out under the permission by the animal ethics committee in Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.
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