Isolation and identification of Salmonella pullorum bacteriophage YSP2 and its use as a therapy for chicken diarrhea
Salmonella pullorum is the major pathogen that is harmful to the poultry industry in developing countries, and the treatment of chicken diarrhea caused by S. pullorum has become increasingly difficult. In this study, a virulent bacteriophage YSP2, which was able to specifically infect Salmonella, was isolated and characterized. Phage YSP2 was classified in the Siphoviridae family and had a short latent period of 10 min. No bacterial virulence- or lysogenesis-related ORF is present in the YSP2 genome, making it eligible for use in phage therapy. Experiments in vivo investigated the potential use of phages as a therapy against diarrhea in chickens caused by S. pullorum in a chicken diarrhea model, demonstrating that a single oral administration of YSP2 (1 × 1010 PFU/mL, 80 μL/chicken) 2 h after S. pullorum oral administration at a double median lethal dose was sufficient to protect chickens against diarrhea. Gross inspection showed that YSP2 can effectively reduce organ damage and significantly relieve hemorrhage in the intestine and liver tissue. Moreover, YSP2 can maintain a high curative effect when diluted to 108 PFU/mL. In light of its therapeutic effect on chicken diarrhea, YSP2 may serve as an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by S. pullorum.
KeywordsSalmonella pullorum Bacteriophage Biological characteristics Therapy Chicken
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan (No. 2016YFD0501307) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 3167130410).
Xin Feng conceived and designed the experiments. Kunyuan Tie, Yuyu Yuan, Shiqing Yan, Xi Yu, Qiuyang Zhang, Huihui Xu, and Yang Zhang performed the experiments. Kunyuan Tie, Yuyu Yuan, Shiqing Yan, and Huihui Xu contributed data analysis. Kunyuan Tie, Yuyu Yuan, and Xin Feng wrote the manuscript. Xin Feng, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei, and Wenyu Han revised the manuscript content. All authors have read and approved the submitted manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors read and approved the final manuscript and declare no conflict of interest.
All animal studies were conducted according to the National Guidelines for Experimental Animal Welfare (Ministry of Science and Technology of China, 2006) and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Jilin University (IACUC). One-day-old chickens (purchased from the Experimental Animal Centre of Jilin University, Changchun, China) were housed in an air-conditioned animal facility with a 12-h light/dark cycle in the National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Centre of Jilin University (Changchun, China).
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