Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but also in many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100 % of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by 5 years of age. Similarly, in cattle, PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In the present study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome in more detail. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the recently described BPIV-3 genotype B strains, and it is proposed that TtPIV-1 be re-classified with BPIV-3 genotype B strains.
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We thank James Wellehan at the University of Florida Marine Mammal Health Program for providing us the TtPIV-1 isolate. We would also like to thank Judith Stasko in the Microscopy Services Unit at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA for help with the electron microscopy portion. Funding for this project was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research Grant N0001412IP20029.
The GenBank Accession Number for the complete genome of TtPIV-1 is KP764763.
Edited by William Dundon.
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Eberle, K.C., Neill, J.D., Venn-Watson, S.K. et al. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains. Virus Genes 51, 198–208 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-015-1224-7
- Parainfluenza virus
- Epithelial cells
- Real-time PCR
- Growth kinetics
- Pro-inflammatory cytokines