Virus Genes

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 89–99 | Cite as

Characterization of complete genome sequence of genotype VI and VII velogenic Newcastle disease virus from Japan

  • Dennis V. Umali
  • Hiroshi ItoEmail author
  • Kazutoshi Shirota
  • Hiromitsu Katoh
  • Toshihiro Ito


The complete genome sequences of three strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from vaccinated commercial layer flocks in Japan in the span of three decades were characterized. All strains had genome lengths of 15,192 nucleotides consisting of six genes in the order of 3′-NP–P/V/W–M–F–HN–L-5′. The general genomic characteristics of the Japanese field strains were consistent with previously characterized class II NDV, except for those belonging to early genotypes (genotype I–IV), which lack the six nucleotide insertion at nucleotide positions 1,648–1,653 of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Japanese strains could be classified into genotypes VIc and VIIe using the complete genome sequence and the complete coding sequence of the fusion (F) gene according to the unified NDV classification system. Characterization of functional domains and neutralizing epitopes of the F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins of Japanese field strains revealed a total of 31 amino acid substitutions, as compared to vaccine strains Ishii and B1, which were widely used in Japan. Although virus neutralization (VN) test showed that poor flock immunity due to vaccination failure or partial and non-uniform immunization maybe the major factors involved in the mechanism of breakthrough infection of the Japanese field strains, approximately two to threefold decrease in the VN titers of the field NDV strains possessing a point mutation (E347K or E347G) at the linear epitope of the HN protein was observed, as compared to vaccine strain B1 and field strain 2440/69, which lack the point mutation. This study may be a useful reference in characterizing future ND outbreaks in vaccinated chickens and as a genetic map for future investigations regarding vaccine designs, reverse genetics systems, and development of molecular diagnostic tools to prevent future ND outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks.


Complete genome Japan Newcastle disease Vaccinated commercial chickens Velogenic 

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 262 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (PDF 387 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (PDF 388 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (PDF 386 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (PDF 387 kb)
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Supplementary material 6 (PDF 242 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis V. Umali
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Ito
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Kazutoshi Shirota
    • 4
  • Hiromitsu Katoh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Toshihiro Ito
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of the Philippines Los BañosLagunaPhilippines
  2. 2.Avian Zoonoses Research Center, Faculty of AgricultureTottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  3. 3.United Graduate School of Veterinary SciencesYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  4. 4.Poultry Products Quality Control (PPQC Co. Ltd)NihonmatsuJapan

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