Virus Genes

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 132–136 | Cite as

Evolutionary dynamics of West Nile virus in Georgia, 2001–2011

  • J. E. Phillips
  • D. E. Stallknecht
  • T. A. Perkins
  • N. S. McClure
  • D. G. Mead


From 1999–2001, West Nile virus (WNV) spread throughout the eastern United States (US) and was first detected in Georgia in 2001. To date, the virus has been detected in over 2,500 dead wild bird and mosquito samples from across Georgia. We sequenced the premembrane (preM) and envelope gene (E) (2004 bp) from 111 isolates collected from 2001 to 2011. To assess viral gene flow from other geographic regions in the US, we combined our data with WNV sequences available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and performed phylogenetic analysis. We found evidence that WNV isolates detected in Chatham County Georgia most likely originated from the Northeastern United States. These results highlight the growing importance of adequate genetic surveillance for monitoring and controlling viruses of public health concern.


West Nile virus Evolutionary analysis Genetic surveillance Mosquito-borne flavivirus 

Supplementary material

11262_2014_1061_MOESM1_ESM.docx (128 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 127 kb)
11262_2014_1061_MOESM2_ESM.docx (56 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 56 kb)
11262_2014_1061_MOESM3_ESM.docx (75 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 75 kb)
11262_2014_1061_MOESM4_ESM.docx (81 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 81 kb)


  1. 1.
    G. Amore, L. Bertolotti, G.L. Hamer, U.D. Kitron, E.D. Walker, M.O. Ruiz, J.D. Brawn, T.L. Goldberg, Multi-year evolutionary dynamics of West Nile virus in suburban Chicago, USA, 2005–2007. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 365(1548), 1871–1878 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Añez, A. Grinev, C. Chancey, C. Ball, N. Akolkar, K.J. Land, V. Winkelman, S.L. Stramer, L.D. Kramer, M. Rios, Evolutionary dynamics of West Nile virus in the United States, 1999–2011: phylogeny, selection pressure and evolutionary time-scale analysis. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 7(5), e2245 (2013)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.M. Armstrong, C.R. Vossbrinck, T.G. Andreadis, J.F. Anderson, K.N. Pesko, R.M. Newman, N.J. Lennon, B.W. Birren, G.D. Ebel, M.R. Henn, Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999–2008. Virology 417(1), 203–210 (2011)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.W. Beasley, C.T. Davis, H. Guzman, D.L. Vanlandingham, A.P. Travassos da Rosa, R.E. Parsons, S. Higgs, R.B. Tesh, A.D. Barrett, Limited evolution of West Nile virus has occurred during its southwesterly spread in the United States. Virology 309(2), 190–195 (2003)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Bertolotti, U. Kitron, T.L. Goldberg, Diversity and evolution of West Nile virus in Illinois and the United States, 2002–2005. Virology 360(1), 143–149 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.T. Davis, G.D. Ebel, R.S. Lanciotti, A.C. Brault, H. Guzman, M. Siirin, A. Lambert, R.E. Parsons, D.W. Beasley, R.J. Novak, D. Elizondo-Quiroga, E.N. Green, D.S. Young, L.M. Stark, M.A. Drebot, H. Artsob, R.B. Tesh, L.D. Kramer, A.D. Barrett, Phylogenetic analysis of North American West Nile virus isolates, 2001–2004: evidence for the emergence of a dominant genotype. Virology 342(2), 252–265 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.J. Drummond, S.Y.W. Ho, M.J. Phillips, A. Rambaut, Relaxed phylogenetics and dating with confidence. PLoS Biol. 4, e88 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.J. Drummond, A. Rambaut, B. Shapiro, O.G. Pybus, Bayesian coalescent inference of past population dynamics from molecular sequences. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22, 1185–1192 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.D. Ebel, J. Carricaburu, D. Young, K.A. Bernard, L.D. Kramer, Genetic and phenotypic variation of West Nile virus in New York, 2000–2003. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71(4), 493–500 (2004)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.E. Gibbs, A.B. Allison, M.J. Yabsley, D.G. Mead, B.R. Wilcox, D.E. Stallknecht, West Nile virus antibodies in avian species of Georgia, USA: 2000–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 6(1), 57–72 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Grinev, S. Daniel, S. Stramer, S. Rossmann, S. Caglioti, M. Rios, Genetic variability of West Nile virus in US blood donors, 2002–2005. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14(3), 436–444 (2008)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.J. Gubler, The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45(8), 1039–1046 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.L. Herring, F. Bernardin, S. Caglioti, S. Stramer, L. Tobler, W. Andrews, L. Cheng, S. Rampersad, C. Cameron, J. Saldanha, M.P. Busch, E. Delwart, Phylogenetic analysis of WNV in North American blood donors during the 2003–2004 epidemic seasons. Virology 363(1), 220–228 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.S. Lanciotti, J.T. Roehrig, V. Deubel, J. Smith, M. Parker, K. Steele, B. Crise, K.E. Volpe, M.B. Crabtree, J.H. Scherret, R.A. Hall, J.S. MacKenzie, C.B. Cropp, B. Panigrahy, E. Ostlund, B. Schmitt, M. Malkinson, C. Banet, J. Weissman, N. Komar, H.M. Savage, W. Stone, T. McNamara, D.J. Gubler, Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286(5448), 2333–2337 (1999)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F.J. May, L. Li, C.T. Davis, S.E. Galbraith, A.D. Barrett, Multiple pathways to the attenuation of West Nile virus in south-east Texas in 2003. Virology 405(1), 8–14 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.R. McMullen, F.J. May, L. Li, H. Guzman, R. Bueno Jr, J.A. Dennett, R.B. Tesh, A.D. Barrett, Evolution of new genotype of West Nile virus in North America. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17(5), 785–793 (2011)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.R. Petersen, E.B. Hayes, West Nile virus in the Americas. Med. Clin. North. Am. 92(6), 1307–1322 (2008). ixPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Phillips
    • 1
  • D. E. Stallknecht
    • 1
  • T. A. Perkins
    • 2
    • 3
  • N. S. McClure
    • 4
  • D. G. Mead
    • 1
  1. 1.Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Fogarty International CenterNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations