Virus Genes

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 132–136

Evolutionary dynamics of West Nile virus in Georgia, 2001–2011

  • J. E. Phillips
  • D. E. Stallknecht
  • T. A. Perkins
  • N. S. McClure
  • D. G. Mead

DOI: 10.1007/s11262-014-1061-0

Cite this article as:
Phillips, J.E., Stallknecht, D.E., Perkins, T.A. et al. Virus Genes (2014) 49: 132. doi:10.1007/s11262-014-1061-0


From 1999–2001, West Nile virus (WNV) spread throughout the eastern United States (US) and was first detected in Georgia in 2001. To date, the virus has been detected in over 2,500 dead wild bird and mosquito samples from across Georgia. We sequenced the premembrane (preM) and envelope gene (E) (2004 bp) from 111 isolates collected from 2001 to 2011. To assess viral gene flow from other geographic regions in the US, we combined our data with WNV sequences available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and performed phylogenetic analysis. We found evidence that WNV isolates detected in Chatham County Georgia most likely originated from the Northeastern United States. These results highlight the growing importance of adequate genetic surveillance for monitoring and controlling viruses of public health concern.


West Nile virus Evolutionary analysis Genetic surveillance Mosquito-borne flavivirus 

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 127 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 56 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 75 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 81 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Phillips
    • 1
  • D. E. Stallknecht
    • 1
  • T. A. Perkins
    • 2
    • 3
  • N. S. McClure
    • 4
  • D. G. Mead
    • 1
  1. 1.Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Fogarty International CenterNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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