Skip to main content


Log in

Analysis of the biological and molecular variability of Watermelon mosaic virus isolates from Iran

  • Published:
Virus Genes Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) is one of the most important viruses that causes different symptoms in Cucurbitaceae. WMV is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution, but occurs most commonly in temperate and Mediterranean regions. Cucurbit species grown in Yazd, Esfahan, West Azerbaijan, Hormozgan, and Kerman provinces were surveyed for the relative incidence of WMV in 2004–2005. A total of 757 symptomatic cucurbit and 31 weed species were collected and assayed for infection with WMV. Of 788 leaf samples from cucurbit and weed plants, 190 samples were positive by double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibody. Among the weed species tested only colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis) was found to be infected with WMV. The coat protein (CP) gene from 18 representative isolates was PCR amplified, cloned, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GeneBank. Phylogenetic analysis using 778 nucleotide long sequences of the coat protein gene showed that these isolates fell into two; groups I and II. Only one isolates (KER.JI.1) was classified in the group II. This isolate had a wider host range and infected Nicotiana debneyii and Datura metel. None of the other 17 isolates could infect these two species. Members of group I were divided into three subgroups; A, B, and C. The subgroup IB appears to be a new subgroup comprising only of the Iranian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 200 nucleotides coding for the N-terminal segment of the CP showed that all Iranian isolates except KER.JI.1 clustered with the previously reported WMV strains. All Iranian isolates had a DAG amino acid triplet which is involved in aphid transmissibility. This is the first report on sequence analysis of the nearly full-length CP cDNA clones of WMV isolates from Iran.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. M.J. Adams, J.F. Antoniw, C.M. Fauquet, Arch. Virol. 150, 459–479 (2005). doi:10.1007/s00705-004-0440-6

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. M.E. Aleman-Verdaguer, C. Goudou-Urbino, J. Dubern, R.N. Beachy, C. Fauquet, J. Gen. Virol. 78, 1253–1264 (1997)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. C.D. Atreya, B. Raccah, T.P. Pirone, Virology 178, 161–165 (1990). doi:10.1016/0042-6822(90)90389-9

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. M.T. Cervera, J.L. Riechmann, M.T. Martin, J.A. Garcia, J. Gen. Virol. 74, 329–334 (1993). doi:10.1099/0022-1317-74-3-329

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. M.F. Clark, A.N. Adams, J. Gen. Virol. 34, 475–483 (1977). doi:10.1099/0022-1317-34-3-475

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. C. Debsibez, H. Lecoq, Arch. Virol. 149, 1619–1623 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  7. C. Debsibez, C. Wipf-Scheibel, C. Granier, C. Robaglia, C. Dellaunay, H. Lecoq, Plant Dis. 80, 203–207 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. C. Debsibez, C. Costa, C. Wipf-Scheibel, M. Girard, H. Lecoq, Arch. Virol. 152, 775–781 (2007). doi:10.1007/s00705-006-0899-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. F. Ebrahim-Nesbat, Phytopathol. Z. 79, 352–358 (1974). doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1974.tb02717.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. H.U. Fischer, B.E. Lockhart, Plant Dis. 58, 143–146 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  11. M.L. Frenkel, C.W. Ward, D.D. Shukla, J. Gen. Virol. 70, 2775–2783 (1989). doi:10.1099/0022-1317-70-10-2775

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. A. Gal-On, Y. Antignus, A. Rosner, B. Raccah, J. Gen. Virol. 72, 2183–2187 (1992). doi:10.1099/0022-1317-73-9-2183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. I.W. Gara, H. Kondo, T. Maeda, N. Inouye, T. Tamada, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 113–117 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. E.E. Grafton-Cardwell, T.M. Perring, R.F. Smith, J. Valencia, C.A. Farrar, Plant Dis. 80, 1092–1097 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. S. Kumar, K. Tamura, I.B. Jakobsen, M. Nei, Bioinformatics 17, 1244–1245 (2001). doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/17.12.1244

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. H. Massumi, A. Samei, A. Hosseini Pour, M. Shaabanian, H. Rahimian, Plant Dis. 91, 159–163 (2007). doi:10.1094/PDIS-91-2-0159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. S.A. Mohammadi, B.M. Prasanna, Crop Sci. 43, 1235–1248 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. I.M. Moreno, J.M. Malpica, J.A. Diaz-Pendon, E. Moriones, A. Fraile, F. Garcia-Arenal, Virology 318, 451–460 (2004). doi:10.1016/j.virol.2003.10.002

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. R. Parvizy, in Proc. 9th Plant Prot. Congr, Iran, Mashhad, 1989, p. 165

  20. D. Purcifull, E. Heibert, J. Edwarson, CMI/AAB Descr. Plant Viruses no. 293, 7 pp. (1984)

  21. H. Rahimian, K. Izadpanah, Phytopathol. Z. 92, 305–312 (1978). doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1978.tb03620.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. M. Saiz, J. Dopazo, S. Castro, J. Romero, Virus Res. 31, 39–48 (1994). doi:10.1016/0168-1702(94)90069-8

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. W.T. Schroeder, R. Provvidenti, Phytopathology 61, 846–848 (1971)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. D.D. Shukla, C.W. Ward, J. Gen. Virol. 69, 2703–2710 (1988). doi:10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2703

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. D.D. Shukla, C.W. Ward, Arch. Virol. 106, 171–200 (1989). doi:10.1007/BF01313952

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. D.D. Shukla, C.W. Ward, A.A. Brunt, The Potyviridae (CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1994)

    Google Scholar 

  27. S.L. Sudarsono, Woloshuk, Z. Xiong, G.M. Hellmann, E.A. Wernsman, A.K. Weissinger, S.A. Lommel, Arch. Virol. 132, 161–170 (1993). doi:10.1007/BF01309850

  28. Y.Y. Wang, D.L. Beck, R.C. Gardner, M.N. Pearson, Arch. Virol. 129, 93–103 (1993). doi:10.1007/BF01316887

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. C.H. Wang, H.J. Bau, S.D. Yeh, Phytopathology 84, 1205–1210 (1994). doi:10.1094/Phyto-84-1205

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. X.W. Xiao, M.J. Frenkel, D.S. Teakle, C.W. Ward, D.D. Shukla, Arch. Virol. 132, 399–408 (1993). doi:10.1007/BF01309548

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. F.M. Zerbini, S.T. Koike, R.L. Gilbertson, Phytopathology 85, 746–752 (1995). doi:10.1094/Phyto-85-746

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by a grant from Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hossain Massumi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sharifi, M., Massumi, H., Heydarnejad, J. et al. Analysis of the biological and molecular variability of Watermelon mosaic virus isolates from Iran. Virus Genes 37, 304–313 (2008).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: