Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 145–152 | Cite as

Effectiveness of different avian influenza (H5) vaccination regimens in layer chickens on the humoral immune response and interferon-alpha signalling immune marker

  • Mustafa Hamad
  • Omar Amen
  • Mohamed Mahmoud
  • Ola Hassanin
  • Mostafa Saif-Edin
Original Article


Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used to control and eliminate the ongoing avian influenza virus epidemic in Egypt. A strict vaccination policy with inactivated AI vaccines has been widely applied, however the virus still circulating, evolving and causing great negative impact to the poultry sector in Egypt. Therefore, an updated poultry vaccination policy using different vaccine technologies might be valuable as an innovative additional control strategy of AIV in Egypt. In the present study, the effectiveness of different avian influenza (AI) vaccination schedules was evaluated in 300 commercial layer chicks (ISA White) using either the oil-emulsion baculovirus-H5-prototype vaccine (baculovirus-H5 prototype) or turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine containing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5), applied alone or in combination and in different settings. Vaccination with either two injections of the baculovirus-H5 prototype, a single injection of rHVT-H5 or priming with rHVT-H5 at 1 day old followed by boosting with the baculovirus-H5 prototype induced AI-HI protective antibody responses starting as early as 3 to 4 weeks of age and lasting up to the end of the rearing period (16 weeks). A single vaccination with the baculovirus-H5 prototype did not generate a protective antibody titre for the entire rearing period. Furthermore, the present study elucidated that vaccination once or twice with the baculovirus-H5 vaccine prototype activated the chicken interferon-alpha (Ch-IFN-alpha) signalling pathway via transduction of antiviral components, e.g., Mx1 and IRF7. Birds immunized once with rHVT-H5 at 1 day old did not show activation of the Mx1 and IRF7 transcripts; however, following boosting with the baculovirus-H5 prototype vaccine, up-regulation of Mx1 and IRF7 was observed. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that either reinforcement with two injections of the baculovirus-H5 prototype or prime-boost vaccination (rHVT-H5 at 1 day old followed by the baculovirus-H5 prototype vaccine at 8 days old) is a successful strategy to induce both innate and humoral immune responses and could be recommended for the layer production sector over the entire rearing period, especially in AI-endemic areas.


Avian influenza Layer Baculovirus-H5 Mx1 IRF7 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors whose names are listed have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAssuit UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Avian and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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