Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 195–199 | Cite as

Plasma alpha-tochopherol determined by HPLC in dogs at different stages of chronic kidney disease: a retrospective study

  • Ilaria Lippi
  • F. Perondi
  • V. Meucci
  • C. Mannarini
  • L. Intorre
  • G. Guidi
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol in dogs with naturally acquired chronic kidney disease (CKD), at different stages of severity. Forty dogs (CKD group) with different stages of CKD (IRIS 1 n=12, IRIS 2 n=8, IRIS 3 n=11, IRIS 4 n=9) and 20 clinically healthy dogs were considered. Plasma alpha-tocopherol was assessed in both groups through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dogs of CKD group showed significantly lower (p=0.0002) levels of plasma alpha-tocopherol compared with clinically healthy dogs. A significant difference (p<0.04) in the number of patients with plasma alpha-tocopherol > or ≤ 21.5 ppm was found in CKD patients at different stages of severity. No significant correlation between plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and plasma creatinine was found. In the present study, dogs affected by spontaneous CKD showed significantly lower plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol compared with clinically healthy dogs. Plasma alpha-tocopherol deficiency seems to be more severe in IRIS stage 1 and 4, compared with IRIS stage 2 and 3. The finding of marked alpha-tocopherol deficiency in patients in IRIS stage 1 should encourage further studies on the early use of prescription renal diet and antioxidant in this group of patients.


Alpha-tocopherol CKD HPLC Dog IRIS stage 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The Authors declare no conflict of interest. This paper was not supported by grants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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