Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 165–170 | Cite as

Characterization of toll-like receptors 1–10 in spotted hyenas

  • Andrew S. Flies
  • Matthew T. Maksimoski
  • Linda S. Mansfield
  • Mary L. Weldele
  • Kay E. Holekamp
Short Communication


Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes are evolutionarily conserved, and assessing TLR expression in various tissues can provide insight into overall immunological organization and function. Studies of the hyena immune system have been minimal thus far due to the logistical and ethical challenges of sampling and preserving the immunological tissues of this and other long-lived, wild species. Tissue samples were opportunistically collected from captive hyenas humanely euthanized for a separate study. We developed primers to amplify partial sequences for TLRs 1–10, sequenced the amplicons, compared sequence identity to those in other mammals, and quantified TLR expression in lymph nodes, spleens, lungs, and pancreases. Results show that hyena TLR DNA and protein sequences are similar to TLRs in other mammals, and that TLRs 1–10 were expressed in all tissues tested. This information will be useful in the development of new assays to understand the interactions among the hyena immune system, pathogens, and the microbial communities that inhabit hyenas.


Hyena Disease Toll-like receptor TLR 



We would like to thank the Dr. Stephen E. Glickman and the staff of the Field Station for Behavioral Research at UC Berkeley for their assistance with tissue collection from the captive hyenas, Dr. Julia Bell for her advice on laboratory procedures, and Dr. Barry Williams for his comments on the research. This work was supported by Award No. W911NF-08-1-0310 from the Army Research Office and NSF Grants IOS1121474 and IOS0819437 to KEH, NSF Grant IOS0809914 to SEG, NIH grant K26RR023080 to LSM, grants-in-aid-of research from Sigma Xi and the American Society of Mammalogists to ASF, veterinary student scholars program from the Morris Animal Foundation, and a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship to ASF.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew S. Flies
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Matthew T. Maksimoski
    • 1
  • Linda S. Mansfield
    • 4
  • Mary L. Weldele
    • 5
  • Kay E. Holekamp
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology and BehaviorMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.School of Pharmacy and Medical SciencesUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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